DIF:Cognitive Level: AnalysisREF:Page 2493.A researcher states in an article, “The subjects acted as their own controls.” If this is true, it implies which of the following? (Select all that apply.)a.The result measured by the researchers was something that varies more from person to person than it does within a single person.b.There were so few subjects that a separate control group could not be obtained.c.Measurement of the subjects was made at least twice.d.Two studies were performed.e.The methodology was quasi-experimental.f.The study was interventional.ANS:A, C, E, FThe rationale for using a design in which subjects act as their own controls is that whatever is being measured varies quite a bit between persons, and the researcher is more interested in showing a change in the subjects than producing a given number value; because of this, a separate control group makes little sense. Examples of this are pain, nausea, and panic. If subjects act as their own controls, they must be measured at least once in the control condition and at least once in the experimental condition. Experimental research requires a separate control group; some quasi-experimental research allows subjects to act as their own controls. Correlational and descriptive research does not use controls—it uses comparison subjects. Quasi-experimental research is interventional.DIF:Cognitive Level: EvaluationREF:Page 2494.In a quantitative research study, burn patients either washed their own wounds or had them washed by nursing staff daily. Patients performed self-washing on alternate days. Pain was measured at intervals during dressing changes. Patients were also interviewed near the end of hospitalization, from the theoretical perspective of symbolic interactionism in order to determinewhat factors made their pain more severe or less severe, under each condition. What study designs were used in this research project?
b.Pretest-posttest with a removed treatment is basically a one-group pretest-posttest design. Then the treatment is removed, followed by another measure of the dependent variable. The treatment may again be added, followed by another measure of the dependent variable, in which case this is called a “repeated reversal” approach. The periods between measures must be equivalent. Mixed methods research is characterized as research that contains elements of both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Grounded theory is congruent with, and its philosophy is derived from the theories of, symbolic interactionism. In a model-testing design, the accuracy of a hypothesized causal model is tested using both linear and multiple regression to differentiate variables that contribute from those which do not. A large, heterogeneous sample is required. All the paths expressing relationships between concepts are identified, and a conceptual map is developed.