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The goal of new urbanism purposes to reform lots of

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The goal of New Urbanism purposes to reform lots of aspects of urban planning and real estate development. Its neighborhoods are designed to include various ranges of jobs and housing. The Charter of the New Urbanism also covers issues such as historic preservation, safe streets, green building, and the redevelopment of brownfield land.
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However, many critics of New Urbanism developments have pointed out that, so far, the self-contained communities constructed (for example, Seaside, Celebration, and Kentlands) have failed to meet their stated social objectives. They tend to be exclusively high income and that they lack racial diversity. New Urbanism is most often appraised in terms of its physical design, while analysis of its social goals is limited to unsubstantiated claims about New Urbanist’s desire to engage in social engineering (Talen, 2002).
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Smart Growth (1990s— present) Smart growth is an adjustment of urban sprawl. In the mid-1990s the term “smart growth” appeared on the planning scene and rapidly became the buzzword of the day. The term was first used in connection with the Maryland state plan under then governor Parris Glendenning. Spurring the smart growth movement are demographic shifts, a strong environmental ethic, increased fiscal concerns, and more nuanced views of growth.
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Smart growth invests time, attention, and resources in restoring community and vitality to center cities and older suburbs. New smart growth is more town-centered, transit and pedestrian oriented, and has a greater mix of housing, commercial and retail uses. It also preserves open space and many other environmental amenities (Smart Growth Online, 1996).
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