Cortisol Awakening Response (CAR)-rise in cortisol levels 20-30 minutes after waking. Occurs in 70% of all healthy people. Phase preference delay Phase Preference Delay: A shift in biorhythms, during which adolescents begin to fall asleep later and become alert later in the day. Consequences of phase preference delay: Important changes in the sleep cycle take place after puberty. This “delayed phase preference” causes adolescents to want to stay up later at night and makes them feel more tired in the early morning hours. Methods for studying Sleep: Polysomnography: Laboratory based sleep assessment Actigraphy : accelerometer tracks movement. Module 3: Research Designs: Longitudinal: A study that follows the same group of individuals over time. Microgenetic: Repeatedly study the same children very short periods of time when you know (or think) a change is about to occur (e.g., before and after menarche) Cross sectional: A study that compares two or more groups of individuals at one point in time Experimental: Compare groups with different experiences. Random assignment of participants to groups. Helps to avoid having biased group. Interfere about causes and effects (might be) allowed. Population versus sample Population: The group of people who are of interest in the study. Sample: The group pf people who participates in the research study. Measurement Reliability: The extent to which a measure measures the same thing across time and occasion. Validity: The extent to which a measure measures what it intends to measure. Interviews: Structured or non-structured
DEP 3305, Hybrid Dr. Parker Questionnaires: Typically, structured. Closed ended responses (with specified options to choose from). Observational methods (Structured and naturalistic) : Structured observation (laboratory setting): Methods that presents identical situations to each adolescent and records behavior. Naturalistic observation (real-world setting): Examination of ongoing behavior in an environment not controlled. Particularly useful for understanding everyday social interactions. Ethnographic research methods: Common in anthropolitan research. Research lives and works among a particular culture or group of people to better understand that culture. Biological research methods: Measure of biological functioning. -Hormonal functioning (e.g., cortisol of salivary alpha amalase). -Physiological functions (e.g., blood pressure) -Brain activity -Genetic structure.
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- Dr. Parker