Lack of trees but have grasses reeds other non woody

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Lack of trees but have grasses, reeds & other non-woody plants Swamps oAlso has slow/steady influx of water from surrounding habitat Nutrient rich, dominated by trees & shrubs Oceans 71% of Earth’s surfaceLargest biome divided into regions based on depth & proximity to land Dimensions determine distribution of nutrients, oxygen & light oCoastal areas nutrient runoff from land add nutrients oPhotic zone: 200 m of surface water oMost of ocean’s volume aphotic (no photosynthesis), food webs supported by detritus from photic zone Water depth oIntertidal zonerocky, sandy or muddy beach exposed to air at low tide but underwater at high tide oNeritic zonefrom intertidal zone to depth of 200m (edge of continental shelf) oPelagic zoneopen ocean beyond continental shelf oBenthic zonebottom of ocean Layers of light oPhotic zoneregions when light reaches oAphotic zoneregions no light reaches Intertidal Zones Part of neritic system, extent depends on height of tides/slope of shores Steep/rocky shores have narrow littoral zones with compressed zones Highest rides in the world are in Bay of Fundy due to shape of bay Large scale: impacts by waves, tides & coastal topography Zones largely dependent on amount of water reaching them due to tides Challenges for organisms: waves, desiccation, extreme temperatures Coral Reefs Part of neritic system, most diverse oceanic biome (25% of fish species but only 1% of Earth’s surface) Shallow tropical/subtropical reefs
48 oNatural barrier that protects shorelines from storm surges & erosion due to regular wave action oCorals & symbiotic algae (Zooxanthellae) primary production to support diverse ecosystem Deep sea reefs build up more slowly (lack Zooxanthellae) Pelagic Realm Photic zone: photosynthetic algae & cyanobacteria, along with protists, zooplankton, fish, & cephalopods Deeper waters: detritus from photic zone feeds protists, zooplankton, fish & cephalopods Animals become less abundant the deeper you go into the ocean Bacteria & archaeons throughout realm Deep Sea 1 km below ocean surface Cold, dark water far below photic zone Sparse populations of consumers, bacteria & archaeons, fed by detritus from shallower waters Relatively high species diversity, fairly uniform composition across the globe (diversity still much lower than coastal photic waters, which tend to also show more regional variations) Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vents High sulfide, hydrogen, & methane concentrations from vents support chemosynthesis Primary producers: chemosynthetic bacteria/archaeons Support locally dense animal populations Global Biogeochemical Cycles Nutrients can be carried long distances by winds as gases & particles & by waters of streams & oceans as dissolved solutes or as particles To understand movement of these nutrients: need to view on global scale Different elements are often called different types of cycles (hydrological, atmospheric, sedimentary) depending on where atoms of these elements that are moving through cycle spend most of their time
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