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homework during the weekend, the time when teachers were least likely to assign homework. The studyfound that students did not like talking about school with their parents at home – only 40% of elementary parents reported talking with their children at home, about school. At the elementary level, parents of students rated “poor” or “fair” receive the most assistance time from their parents on homework. In middle school, parents of students rated “poor” or “top students” receive the least amount of help time, with average students receiving the most help from parents. For “poor” students inmiddle school, they received the least help from parents, spend the least time on homework, and receive the least effort from teachers to engage their parents. Teacher practice explained 28% of the variance in time parents spend helping his or her child on homework. The study also found that parents’ attitudes about the quality of their child’s education was directly correlated with their reporting of the 16
school’s practices to involve parents, much more so than their reporting of their own involvement. The study supports Epstein’s earlier research that says the strongest immediate impact of teachers’ parental involvement practices are on parents’ attitude and behaviors. Eagle, E. (1989). Socioeconomic status, family structure, and parental involvement: The correlates of achievement. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco.This study looked at several different variables including family income, parent’s work status, family structure, parents’ educational attainment, and parental involvement at the high school level. The study found that parental involvement in high school had a much larger impact than socioeconomic status, even independent of SES factors. Parents’ income and educational status did play a positive impact on student achievement independent of parent involvement, but the impact of parent involvement was larger. Additionally, there was no statistical impact to living in two-parent households versus single-parent households or parent-and-guardian households. Although there is a small correlation between family structure and student success, this can be largely explained by SES factors.Archer-Banks, D. & Behar-Horenstein, L. (2008). African American parental involvement in their children’s middle school experiences.The Journal of Negro Education. 77(2) 143-156.This study used a focus group of nine African American parents to explore their views on parental involvement. Before the study, the authors discussed relevant literature, which has found that school personnel tend to view African American parents as being uneducated and interact with them in a negative manner. Research has shown that African American parents do tend to be less engaged than their white counterparts, causing many educators to believe African American parents do not care about their children’s education. When African American parents do attempt to become involved, teachers often reject their attempts, widening the divide further. The results of the focus group revealed there