The communication between nodes a and b is shown in

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The communication between nodes A and B is shown in Fig. 4. In gen- eral, the i -th message exchanged between nodes A and node B is encrypted using Eq. (3) and the corresponding decryption process uses Eq. (4). The exchange of the nonce results in a continuous challenge-response protocol, which provides data confidentiality as well as per packet authentication. The per packet authentication protects against MAC spoofing attacks as well as replay attacks. E N i - 2 ( N i 1 || Data || MetaData ) (3) D N i - 2 ( E N i - 2 ( N i 1 || Data || MetaData )) = N i 1 || Data || Metadata (4) 6. Standardization Efforts IEEE 802.11i 4 is the defined standard for the MAC layer security of the wireless networks. We dedicate this section to discuss the IEEE 802.11i standard. The section begins with the explaination of the security meth- ods used for the services of authentication and confidentiality in the IEEE 802.11i standard. Subsequently, we expose the vulnerabilities in IEEE Copyright © 2010. World Scientific Publishing Company. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law. EBSCO Publishing : eBook Collection (EBSCOhost) - printed on 2/16/2016 3:46 AM via CGC-GROUP OF COLLEGES (GHARUAN) AN: 340572 ; Beyah, Raheem, Corbett, Cherita, McNair, Janise.; Security in Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks Account: ns224671
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18 A. Naveed and S. Kanhere 802.11i that render the standard prone to security attacks. These weak- nesses lead to attacks including: pre-computation and partial matching at- tacks; session hijacking attacks; man-in-the-middle attacks exploiting vul- nerabilities in IEEE 802.1X; and DoS attack exploiting vulnerabilities in four-way handshake. We also briefly discuss the proposed prevention mech- anisms for these attacks. IEEE 802.11i standard consists of three components: Key Distribution component, Mutual Authentication component, Data Confidentiality, In- tegrity, and Origin Authentication component. In the following sections, we briefly discuss these components under broad categories of authentica- tion and confidentiality. 6.1. Mutual Authentication Using IEEE 802.1X Standard IEEE 802.11i standard uses IEEE 802.1X 6 for key distribution and au- thentication . IEEE 803.1X relies on Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) 7 and an authentication, authorization, and accounting server (AAA Server) like RADIUS or DIAMETER 8,9 for the purpose. IEEE 802.1X is a port-based access control protocol, which operates in a client-server archi- tecture. When an authenticator (A member node of the network) detects a new supplicant (a node requesting to join the network), the port on the authenticator is enabled and set to the “unauthorized” state for that sup- plicant. Only 802.1X traffic (EAP messages) is allowed in this state. Any other traffic originating from the supplicant is blocked until after authen- tication. The authenticator sends out the EAP-Request message to the supplicant, which is replied by an EAP-Response message, containing the preloaded credentials of the supplicant. The authenticator forwards this message to the AAA server. The server may be distributed or replicated
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  • Spring '12
  • Kushal Kanwar
  • Public key infrastructure, ........., Public-key cryptography, Pretty Good Privacy

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