• Type B Personality Less competitive, less devoted to work, have a weaker sense of time urgency. Less likely to experience personal stress or to come into conflict with other people. More likely to have balanced, relaxed approach to life. Causes of Stress • Task Demands Associated with the task itself Have to make quick decisions, critical decisions, or decisions based on inappropriate information • Physical Demands Associated with the job setting May have extreme temperatures, poorly designed office space or threats to ones health. • Role Demands Associated with the role; may experience role ambiguity or role conflict • Interpersonal Demands Associated with relationships that confront people in organizations May result from group pressure, leadership styles or conflicting personalities. Consequences of Stress • Negative Personal Consequences Behavioral – smoking, alcoholism, overeating, accident proneness Psychological – sleep disturbances, depression, family problems Medical – heart disease, stroke, headaches, backaches • Negative Work-related Consequences Poor quality work output and lower productivity. Job dissatisfaction, low morale, and a lack of commitment. Withdrawal through indifference and absenteeism. • Burnout A feeling of exhaustion that may develop when someone experiences too much stress for an extended period of time.
MGMT 309 - Wesson 74 Managing Stress • Stress Management Strategies for Individuals Regular exercise reduces tension and stress, and improves self-confidence and feelings of optimism. Relaxation allows individuals to adapt and better deal with their stress. Time management reduces stress by prioritizing activities to accomplish them in their order of importance. Support groups Managing Stress (cont’d) • Stress Management Strategies in Organizations Organizations are partly responsible for stress. Organizations also must bear the costs of stress- related claims. Organizational wellness/stress management programs can be used to promote healthful employee activities and derive the benefits of increased organizational productivity. Creativity in Organizations • Creativity The ability of an individual to generate new ideas or to conceive of new perspectives in existing ideas. • The Creative Individual Background experiences and creativity Many creative individuals were reared in creative environments. Personal traits and creativity Creative persons have personal traits of openness, an attraction to complexity, high levels of energy, independence, autonomy, strong self-confidence, and a strong belief in their own creativity.
MGMT 309 - Wesson 75 Creativity in Organizations, cont’d Characteristics of Creative People •Tolerance for ambiguity •Independent thinker •Not inhibited by conformity pressure •Good verbal communicator •Imaginative •Reasonably intelligent •Intrinsically motivated •Hard worker
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