●Missionary postcards also came out to show a certain view of India, such as the civilization of children by missionaries. The Kamasutra ●‘Kama’ = desire, ‘sutra’ = a short literature. Hindu text composed in Ujjain. ●Written between the 3rd and 4th centuries. ●Qualities ○From a western perspective, it is a sexually liberal text. It would have been outside the norms of “Victorian sexuality” in terms of when it was translated. ○It is a fairly heteronormative text embedded in an elite, urban context. ○As a whole, it is focused on the ‘art of living’ including sex, but also all kinds of aesthetic experiences. ○The audience is meant to be primarily men, but also the ‘city’ people. Married women would only have access to study the text through their husbands. ●Themes ○Subversive elements such as it not forbidding love marriage (usually there is focused on arranged marriage). ○No emphasis on one’s wife, and is not necessarily procreative. ○It acknowledges sexualities absent in other genres of elite literature. Kamasutra in the West ❖It was originally translated and published by Richard Burton in 1883. The Burton Translation ❖He translated it in terms of censorship and made it into a product of Victorian England (qualities of secrecy and repression/obsession with sex). See as an anti-establishment text in the ways that it went against the norms and accepted ideals at the time. ❖He often mistranslated things to avoid obscurity charges. ❖These translations had orientalist implications for most English readers. ➢This translation is also widely accepted today, showing fascination and subordination with the past and these orientalist principles.