Also looks at non conquered lands as virgin territory

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-Also looks at non-conquered lands as “virgin territory”. The Victorian Era (1837-1901) -These ideas became particularly prominent during the VIctorian Era due to the crises and thoughts of societal degeneration. This was due to things such as feminist upheaval, swelling poverty, lack of housing and jobs, etc. -Diseases and the body had an impact on society, such as the way women dressed in accordance with sexual repression (smallpox, STDs were going around). -These problems came from the upperclassmen with fear of the middle class - they found the solution to be sexual purity. -Due to prejudice, it was also thought that the causes of all these diseases came from non-western bodies. Colonial Postcards and the Colonized Body (from “The Colonial Harem”by Malek Alloula) Postcards were really popular around this time. These images from the colonies that they were sending home were becoming the “truth” about these colonies. They represented inaccurate portrayals of Algeria - it represents the place that it shows and the place it will reach. He argues that these postcards were meant to convince French viewers that this colonization was needed for Algeria.
Missionary postcards also came out to show a certain view of India, such as the civilization of children by missionaries. The Kamasutra ‘Kama’ = desire, ‘sutra’ = a short literature. Hindu text composed in Ujjain. Written between the 3rd and 4th centuries. Qualities From a western perspective, it is a sexually liberal text. It would have been outside the norms of “Victorian sexuality” in terms of when it was translated. It is a fairly heteronormative text embedded in an elite, urban context. As a whole, it is focused on the ‘art of living’ including sex, but also all kinds of aesthetic experiences. The audience is meant to be primarily men, but also the ‘city’ people. Married women would only have access to study the text through their husbands. Themes Subversive elements such as it not forbidding love marriage (usually there is focused on arranged marriage). No emphasis on one’s wife, and is not necessarily procreative. It acknowledges sexualities absent in other genres of elite literature. Kamasutra in the West It was originally translated and published by Richard Burton in 1883. The Burton Translation He translated it in terms of censorship and made it into a product of Victorian England (qualities of secrecy and repression/obsession with sex). See as an anti-establishment text in the ways that it went against the norms and accepted ideals at the time. He often mistranslated things to avoid obscurity charges. These translations had orientalist implications for most English readers. This translation is also widely accepted today, showing fascination and subordination with the past and these orientalist principles.

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