In August 43, Germans come in to liquidate Bialystok Ghetto · Second largest ghetto uprising after Warsaw ghetto · Last existing ghetto was in Lodz where head of Judenrat, Rumkonski, believed in rescue through work · By the summer of 44, Lodz was liquidated and most of the 80,000 Jews there were deported to Auschwitz · As the Soviet Army became nearing Polish border, germans speeded up the liquidation process · Did not want anyone surviving – no living witnesses order was enacted that prisoners in camps were either killed on the spot or marched to Austria and Germany · Not always foot marches- sometimes put on trains · Death marches required that inmates of camps that were already weak/ill forced them to march long distances in the bitter cold with little food, water, and rest · People who were unable to march to Austria and Germany were shot along the way · In January 1945, Auschwitz camp was evacuated 60,000 mostly Jewish prisoners were marched to other sites in Poland where they were placed on trains and shipped to concentration camps further west · Estimated in total that about 200-250,000 more concentration inmates murdered/died in the forced marches (which took place in last 10 months of war) · Marches were not predominantly Jews but large plurality of Jews · What happens after? · What you have going on in Europe is a massive uprooting of millions of people · Hundreds of thousands of Jews who did survive were sometimes met with anger and animosity as they went back to their homes · Charlotte Delbo- French Protestant who was sent to Auschwitz as political dissident and wrote about what it means to survive in the aftermath helps us realize that the term liberation which sounds celebratory is not what most survivors felt · Her account of returning to Paris after the war describes that there were people to greet her, but for the Jews in Poland, there was no one to greet them · Chaotic process of figuring out where to go and finding relatives/friends
· In Poland, 1500 Jewish survivors in the several months after the war were killed after liberation · Sense that Poland is not a place that Jews will return to · Jews as quickly as possible fled westward and were sent to displaced persons camp · Gathered in camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy · For hundreds of thousands of Jews in the DP camps, they stayed in the camps for many months and figured out where to go to for the vast majority, Europe was not an option · Tried to get into the US and illegal journey to Palestine · In DP camps, flourishing of new Jewish cultural life (70 newspapers, theatres, orchestras, people married and had children) · About 2/3 of displaced persons eventually emigrate to Israel and most of the rest to the United States · In some cases, people started businesses in DP camps · In Feb. of 1945, several months before the war ends, Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin meet and agreed to prosecute the axis leaders (countries that waged war) at the end of the war · Signed an agreement known as the London Agreement which turned into the International Military Tribunal (IMT) ·
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 59 pages?
- Spring '07
- The Bible