to really go into retreat for that whole period and that has an impact on the

To really go into retreat for that whole period and

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to really go into retreat for that whole period and that has an impact on the nature of western mining and in fact the owners of the Bunker Hill Company attempted to blacklist all of the miners who had been involved in this controversy, the Coeur d’Alene mining wars of 1899, so that they couldn’t work anywhere in the west and there was quite a lot of association between mine owners throughout the west and people here in the Coeur d’Alene’s attempted to make sure that the Western Federation of Miner’s never got to that powerful position that they had held before 1899. [Professor Hirt]: So, it really ended with the miners losing a great deal of the ground that they had begun to gain. [Katherine Aiken]: Yes, they did and the Bunker Hill Company attempted to create a company union to replace the Western Federation of Miners to deal with workers in that way. On the other hand the company did make some changes that were beneficial to workers in the hopes that that would preclude union organization and so the company worked hard at community relations as well during this period. [Professor Hirt]: That’s an important lesson that we see repeated throughout labor history in the United States is that whenever there’s a great deal of labor agitation, companies
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3 will on the one hand resist, often with the help of the government and will on the other hand make just enough concessions to blunt any of the protest and the anger. [Katherine Aiken]: And that’s precisely the strategy mine owners attempted in this area and did quite successfully. [Professor Hirt]: Rising concerns about the concentrations of wealth and power in the industrial age and a growing sense, on the part of many people, of a disinheritance from the American dream, a sense of powerlessness, led to a long period of social and political reform, concentrated in the 1890’s until about World War I. Now, we’ve talked about labor organization as a response to the new industrial problems and concerns of the new industrial age. Let’s turn, for a short period now, to political reforms that were promoted at this time, especially during the progressive era, right after the turn of the century and up to World War I. Your text defines progressivism as [slide: Progressivism] “a commitment to the amelioration of a variety of social, economic, political and moral ills by activists from considerably different backgrounds.” Now, this last point about considerably different backgrounds is an important one. The progressives were not one unified movement, they were actually a collection of movements. The Republican party probably had the most progressives, at least in the early years, until Democrat Woodrow Wilson was elected president, but there were many Democratic progressives, as well as the Republican progressives and there was also a Progressive Party for a brief period of time, as well as a Non-Partisan League, which was sort of a bi-partisan or non-partisan coalition of activists promoting progressive issues. Almost everyone at the turn of the century was a
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