49. In expectancy theory, valence refers to the value attached by the individual to various work outcomes.
50. According to the expectancy theory, work motivation will be high when expectancy and instrumentality are high, and valence is highly positive.
51. According to the expectancy theory, motivation is low when any one of the three components –– expectancy, instrumentality, or valence –– approaches zero.
52. According to expectancy theory, managers can influence workers’ instrumentalities by selecting capable workers, training them, supporting them, and setting clear goals.
53. According to expectancy theory, managers can influence workers’ expectancies byidentifying the needs that are important to each individual and then trying to adjustavailable rewards to match those needs.
54. Even with a great deal of support for the research on expectancy theory, there are still questions remaining on the multiplier effect.
55. Unfortunately, expectancy theory has not received any research follow-up and hence, it is not practical.
56. Goal-setting is the process of developing, negotiating, and formalizing the targets or objectives that an individual is responsible for achieving.