In expectancy theory instrumentality is the

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Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences
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Chapter 10 / Exercise 16
Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences
Gravetter/Wallnau
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46. In expectancy theory, instrumentality is the probability that work effort will be followed by a given level of performance accomplishment.
47. According to expectancy theory, expectancy is the probability that work effort willbe followed by a given level of performance accomplishment.
48. In expectancy theory, instrumentality is the probability assigned by the individual that a given level of performance will lead to various work outcomes.
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Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences
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Chapter 10 / Exercise 16
Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences
Gravetter/Wallnau
Expert Verified
49. In expectancy theory, valence refers to the value attached by the individual to various work outcomes.
50. According to the expectancy theory, work motivation will be high when expectancy and instrumentality are high, and valence is highly positive.
51. According to the expectancy theory, motivation is low when any one of the three components –– expectancy, instrumentality, or valence –– approaches zero.
52. According to expectancy theory, managers can influence workers’ instrumentalities by selecting capable workers, training them, supporting them, and setting clear goals.
53. According to expectancy theory, managers can influence workers’ expectancies byidentifying the needs that are important to each individual and then trying to adjustavailable rewards to match those needs.
54. Even with a great deal of support for the research on expectancy theory, there are still questions remaining on the multiplier effect.
55. Unfortunately, expectancy theory has not received any research follow-up and hence, it is not practical.
56. Goal-setting is the process of developing, negotiating, and formalizing the targets or objectives that an individual is responsible for achieving.
57. Locke and Latham’s research confirmed that “easy” and “do your best” goals result in the highest performance levels.
58. Research indicates that specific goals are much more motivational than general goals.
59. Task feedback, or knowledge of results, overwhelms employees with information and reduces employee motivation toward higher performance.
60. Goals are better motivators when employees accept them and show commitment totheir goals.
61. Participation in goal-setting helps create goal acceptance and commitment by employees.

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