2007 p 138 Masculine societies believe in equity with rewards given according

2007 p 138 masculine societies believe in equity with

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and nurturing” (Tsakumis et al., 2007, p. 138). Masculine societies believe in equity: with rewards given according to performance and achievement and feminine societies believe in equality: reward being given according to need (Hofstede, 1984). Hofstede (2001) finds that countries with higher masculinity traits are less permissive towards lawbreakers, and preferred punishments, whereas countries with lower masculinity traits are more lenient and focused more on correction and rehabilitation (Tsakumis et al., 2007). 4.4.5 Long term and short term orientations Long term (LT) orientation stands for the “fostering of virtues oriented toward future rewards, long term planning, perseverance, and thrift. Short-term (ST) orientation stands for the fostering of virtues related to the past and present, respect for tradition, living for the day, preservation of “face”, and fulfilling social obligations” (Hofstede &
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51 Hofstede, 2005, p. 210). LT orientation values emphasise thrift which leads to cash savings, whereas ST orientation values emphasise spending to maintain customs and “saving face” (Yeh & Xu, 2010). It was the LT orientation of East Asians, which values savings and perseverance, that led to their economic growth and success over the last two decades (Hofstede & Soeters, 2002). 4.4.6 Hofstede’s framework and ethnic groups Hofstede’s framework has predominantly been used in cross-country research but Hofstede recognises the different levels of culture and differentiated them into national, regional/ethnic/religious, gender, generational, social class and organisational levels. Hofstede and Hofstede (2005) emphasise that “regional, ethnic, and religious cultures, insofar as they are learned from birth onward, can be described in the same terms as national cultures; basically the same dimension that was found to differentiate among national cultures apply to these differences within countries” (Hofstede & Hofstede, 2005, p. 34). In other words, the five cultural dimensions can be used for ethnic groups in a similar way to cross-cultural research. Hofstede does not distinguish the cultural scores for ethnic or regional groups intra-culturally except for South Africa. For example, northern Italy has low PD and southern Italy has high PD but there is only one score given to Italy as a country. Similarly, multicultural Indonesia and Malaysia are given one score for each of the cultural dimensions. Schwartz (1999) argues that national boundaries do not always correspond with homogeneous societies with a shared culture. In some situations, the “differences between ethnic or cultural groups within a country might be stronger than differences between countries” (A. Cohen, 2007, p. 274). Tung (2008) claims that there are starker differences between Francophones (French speaking Canadians) and Anglophones (English speaking Canadians) in Canada, as Anglophones are more similar to their American neighbours, than to their fellow Francophones. She states that “given the growing diversity of the workforce within a country, intra-national variations can often be as significant as cross-national differences” (Tung, 2008, p. 41). Increasing
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