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Reason the automated version of this methodology is

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reason, the automated version of this methodology is an acknowledged reference method.[17APHA-AWWA-WPCF. 4500 ClE. InStandard Methods for the Examination of Water andWastewater. However, this method presents a serious drawback, that is, the use ofconsiderable amounts of Hg(SCN)2, a highly toxic reagent. Since the first direct FIA systemfor this purpose.Flow injection analysis: Part IV. Stream sample splitting and its application tothe continuous spectrophotometric determination of chloride in brackish waters, the reagentconsumption was improved following alternative strategies based on automation such asmembrane reagent introduction in 1998.Determination of chloride by flow injectionspectrophotometry with membrane reagent introduction the Hg(SCN)2immobilization in anepoxy resin in 2005, O.Flow injection spectrophotometric method for chloride determinationin natural waters using Hg(SCN)2immobilized in epoxy resin . or the multicommutatedMSFIA procedure in 2008.Spectrophotometric determination of chloride in waters using amultisyringe flow injection system.The consumption of Fe3+and Hg(II) for the previouslycommented systems can be seen in Table 1. We can appreciate a progressive reduction in theconsumption of Hg(II) with the concomitant increase of the automation degree. With theMSFIA method[16Maya , F.; Estela , J. M.; Cerdà , V.Spectrophotometric determination of67
chloride in waters using a multisyringe flow injection system .Talanta2008 , 74 ( 5 ), 1534 –1538 .[Google Scholar]]the lowest reagent consumption levels are achieved. The manifoldcorrespondent to this MSFIA system for the spectrophotometric determination of chloride inwaters in schematically depicted in Fig.2.FIGURE 2 Schematic representation of the MSFIA manifold for chloride determination. C:carrier (distilled water); R1: Hg(SCN)2reagent; R2: Fe3+reagent; E: empty (not used); S1–S4: syringes; E1–E6: solenoid valves; On–Off: solenoid valves positions; SC: security coil;HC: holding coil; Cp: confluence point; KR: knotted reactor; FC: flow cell.Display full sizeTABLE 1 Summarized Analytical Performance of Several Flow Systems for theSpectrophotometric ClDetermination Based on the Cl/Hg(SCN)2/Fe3+Reaction SystemCSVDisplay TableAnother improvement is the combination of MSFIA technique with cold vapor atomicabsorption spectrometry (CVAAS)[22Leal , L. O.; Elsholz , O.; Forteza , R.; Cerdà ,V.Determination of mercury by multisyringe flow injection system with cold-vapor atomicabsorption spectrometry .Anal. Chim. Acta2006 , 573–574 , 399 – 405 .[Google Scholar]]and cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CVAFS),[23Serra , A. M.; Estela , J. M.;Cerdà , V.MSFIA system for mercury determination by cold vapour technique with atomicfluorescence detection .Talanta2008 , 77 ( 2 ), 556 – 560 .[Google Scholar]]both for thedetermination of mercury in water and fish samples (after manual mineralization of the solidsample). In this line must be added the proposed MSFIA systems with hydride generationatomic fluorescence spectrometry (HGAFS) for the determination of inorganic arsenic,[24Semenova , N. V.; Leal , L. O.; Forteza , R.; Cerdà , V.Multisyringe flow-injection system

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Term
Spring
Professor
Magu

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