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-China produces about 3/4 of all the garlic in the world, 12 million metric tons are produced globally for sale and for distribution3-1Calcium (Ca) -99% of calcium is used in our bones and teeth-1% is for nerve transmission and blood clotting -Intake varies: recommended amounts will vary depending on age-adults: 1000mg a day-Women need much less intake than men. Many women are osteoporotic (bone disease)-Elite men swimmers: they were recommended to take 270 calcium where 100 was standard -Elite women swimmers: they took roughly 20% more their daily intake -If the intake is 250 mg: 85 is lost in urine, 265 in the stool and net balance is -100. Losing calcium everyday-If the intake is 800 mg, it is just about breakeven3-2osteoporosis: porous bones. Weakening of bones -not much problem for men up to the age of 60 but is a major issue for women-Caused by low dietary calcium-Europe has the most osteoporotic fractures in the world-Women get significantly more hip fractures and wrist fractures-Risk factors:-1. Short stature-2. Underweight-3. Early menopause-4. Physical inactivity -Alcoholism and excess caffeine, protein and fiber tends to capture the calcium ions and drag them out of the body-Stature wears out. The curvature of spine: drooping of the shoulder scoliosis-Resorption (loss of bone mass)for post-menopausal women = 1~5% a yearRule of 70: take the number 70 and divide it by the percentage of change per time. The result is the amount of time it takes to double or halve depending on the circumstances of the question. e.g. resorption = 5% a year so 70/5=14 it will take about 14 years for half of the bone mass to be gonebones:-honeycomb structure -10% loss in bone mass= 170% more fractures-Hip fractures: 17% die within 3 months and 27% die within a year3-3
-Absorption process : soluble materials: calcium, PO4, OH in the blood connect together to make bone and teeth -material: Calcium apatite -Resorption:loss of the bone material. (solubilization: making bones more soluble so that the material is lost) -Bone is made up of a protein material -Series of cells called an osteoclast: they liberate aid in their action-The acid takes away the bone material and calcium, leaving a spot with less bone material thus weakened. -Fosamax material inhibits osteoclasts from functioning (3% increase of bone mass a year)-But Fosamax caused osteonecrosis of the jaw (jawbone death) Remedies for osteoporotic treatment-Zometa: new drug with two phosphate units, less dosing than other drugs -Some side effects for some womenOsteoblast: process of absorption— putting back bone materials-matrix of protein and mineral material that is put together by the body-Once the bone has been put together by the portion material, the minerals are implanted by the osteoblast process. (it builds up the calcium components of the bone) 3-4How can one tell if one has low bone mass?