Used a lot of platforms and lighting on stage doing

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Used a lot of platforms and lighting on stage - Doing this during the time when lighting was just becoming a thing - He believes that the lighting is the most important element of theatre - How mood gets created on stage - Edward gordon Craig - 1872-1966 - Directing and design - Theatre is the fusion of all the other arts
- Believes there needs to be a director to dictate how everything needs to be done - Director was the supreme vision of the play - Max Reinhardt - 1872-1943 - He believed the production to be what the script says Futurism - Italy, Russia - 1909-1918 - Poet F.T. Martinetti - “We want no part of it, the past” - State style for italian facisim - Early modernism - Poets, painters, theatre is not involved in this - Technology triumphing over reality Dada - Response to the war - Zurich, Switzerland during the World War I - Rejection of values that had provoked WWI - Where collage started - Simultaneity and multiple focus - Replace logic and reasoning with chance and logic - A bunch of nonsense into art: didn’t make sense on purpose - A lot of things going on at once Expressionism - 1909-1930’s - Existed in painting, poetry, film, dance, and music - Focuses on the individuals perspective - Materialism and industrialism turns humans into machines - August Strindburg, “To Damascus” “The Dream Play” - Eugene O’Neill, “The Hairy Ape” (1922) - First american playwright that was recognized - Experimented with expressionism Hairy Ape - Written by Eugene O’Neill - Episodic structure - Distortion
- Protagonist as symbolic of modern humanity in an industrialized society American Theatre between the wars - 1920’s - modernism was predominant in all arts - Silent Film era 1900-1929, Sound films 1929 - Sound film started killing theatre because movies became more popular and cost less money - Great Depression 1929-late 1930’s - Live theatre was expensive to do and they cancelled a lot of theatre because movies were taking over Federal Theatre Project - Works progress administration, new deal program - Job creation program for theatre people - 1935-1939 - “Free, adult, uncensored theatre” - Living newspaper - Created jobs and put people back to work The Group Theatre - 1931-1941 - Modeled on the moscow Art Theatre - Promoted the Stanislavsky system of acting in the U.S Epic Theatre - Developed in Germany during the 1920’s - Bertolt Brecht - Political agenda, wanted audiences to watch actively and critically - Alienation effect - Wanted people to think about what is going on on stage Surrealism - 1920-130 - Emphasized importance of unconscious - Promoted: dreams, automatic writing, and stream of consciousness - Grew out of Dada - Antonin Artaud (1896-1948) Theatre of Cruelty - “The theatre had been created to drain abscesses collectively”
Existentialism - Jean-Paul Sartre - Man is “condemned to be free” - There is no exit - Albert Camus - Humans long for clarity in an irrational universe - The universe is an irrational place and people should choose their paths Absurdism - France 1950 - Named “absurdism” by Martin Esslin in 1960 - Truth = chaos; lack of order, certainty - No cause-and-effect relationships - Samuel Beckett Waiting for Godot - Samuel Beckett, 1953

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