Multiple case studies allow for exploration, description and explanation within each case, as well as across the cases to draw conclusions (Creswell, 1998). Moreover, this approach facilitates understanding of the processes that lead to the results, rather than focusing on the results themselves, and a deeper understanding of an organisation to explore the complex issues that is not possible with quantitative approaches (Gillham, 2000). More than two cases should be included within the same study as it enables comparisons to be made and develop underlying patterns across the cases and obtain more reliability in the overall results (Yin 2004). Therefore, four NGOs in Allahabad were undertaken for this study. Stake (2000) argues that with case studies the sample size is too small to warrant random selection and that for qualitative inquiry “a purposive sample, building in variety and acknowledging opportunities for intensive study” (Stake, 2000, p.446) is appropriate. For the current study the selection of NGOs was based on access, location, cooperation, scope of activities, possible uniqueness and representation. Inputs were also taken from National Bank for Rural Development for selection of the NGOs. Case studies based on multiple sources of evidence have proven to be of overall higher quality than those that relied on a single source of information (Yin 1994). Therefore data was collected through
ROLE OF NGOs IN SKILL DEVELOPMENT AND PROMOTION OF MICRO-ENTREPRENEURSHIP AMONG WOMEN: A STUDY OF ALLAHABAD DISTRICT Management Dynamics, Volume 17, Number 2 (2017) Jaipuria Institute of Management 43 primary sources, secondary sources and through observation. Semi ‐ structured interviews were used to collect case data, with an interview guide to ensure uniform coverage of the research themes (Grawitz, 1996). Each interview lasted approximately two hours and was recorded and detailed notes were also taken. Detailed interviews were conducted with the Directors of each of the four NGOs. Information was also collected from 3-4 employees of each of the NGOs for better understanding of working of the NGOs. The questions were so designed so that the objectives of the study could be achieved. The questions were divided under the following headings: 1) the focus of NGOs for the skill development of women 2) the type of training imparted 3) mode of imparting training 4) does the training lead to development of micro-entrepreneurs? How? 5) the kind of support provided by the NGO for entrepreneurship development among these women 6) the challenges NGOs face in their endeavors The materials were then analyzed (intra ‐ and inter ‐ case) using summary tables and matrices developed with the methods suggested by Huberman and Miles (2002). Interviews were transcribed by the researcher. Each NGO was analysed independently. Data were analysed in three rounds. In the first round quotes were studied from which themes were developed, using which, content and issues of the study were developed from the transcription. In the second round, similarities and differences between the four NGOs were identified. The transcripts of interviews, secondary data and participative inquiry
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