Strength of amplitude of sound waves determines

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Strength of amplitude of sound waves determines loudness , intensity or force with which the air strikes the ear Decibel scale of sound reflects perceived loudness in humans Wave Frequency – is a measure of the number of times a wave repeats itself in a period of time – usually one second Frequency is measured in terms of how many waves of pressure are exerted every minute Vestibular apparatus – unconscious sensations (vision, hearing, touch, smell, taste) Essential for motor coordination, eye movements and posture Perceptual Development – maximized between ages of 3 ½ and 7 years old Children perceive differently than adults General Adaptation Syndrome – body’s response to stress 1. Alarm reaction 2. Resistance 3. Exhaustion – occurs if the first two stages fail to reduce stress SCHEMAS – organized mental representations of the world Jean Piaget – Theory of Cognitive Development Development of SCHEMAS o Children and others categorize and identify people and things by linking past knowledge into new knowledge o One’s organized mental representations of the world Jean Piagets - 4 Stages of Cognitive Development 1. Sensorimotor Stage – children discover by doing. a. Cause and effect, b. aware of OBJECT PERMANENCE (hide a toy under a blanket, before object permanence it no longer exist to the child) 2. Preoperational Stage
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a. – Self centered thinking, realize they are independent, a.i. Child takes a cookie and breaks it up, “now there is more for me.” Preoperational thought 3. Concrete Operational Stage a. - ability to manipulate concepts, observable objects can be classified, ranked, ordered and separated 4. Formal Operational Stage – Conservation begins a. Conservation - Two different size glasses same amount of water, child can use logic not misleading appearances to reach a conclusion b. Logical manipulation and symbolic concepts appear, abstract, symbolic reasoning c. Usually around adolescence Accommodation – changing and revising existing schemas when faced with a new experience or information Visual Cliff – Depth perception experiment Usually before 6 months of age Consciousness - awareness and perception of the one’s environment State of mind State of awareness Immediate Consciousness – awareness of thoughts, ideas, feelings, and perceptions that are active in one’s mind Biological Rhythms – sleep is affected by changes in our body Circadian rhythms – a cycle that completes in 24 hrs Infradian rhythms – any biological cycle that takes longer than 24 hrs such as a women’s menstrual cycle which occurs every 28 days Ultradian rhythms – cycle that occur more than once per day Insomnia – chronic inability to sleep Lack of Sleep can alter consciousness (sleep deprivation) Reducing alertness, awareness, and perception of events around us Can also result in altered state of consciousness, including hallucinations, mood alterations and body changes Is almost always corrected with additional sleep
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