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Pns anatomy of the sympathetic division originates

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PNS: Anatomy of the Sympathetic DivisionOriginates from T1through L2Ganglia are at the sympathetic trunk (near the spinal cord)Short pre-ganglionic neuron and long post-ganglionic neuron transmit impulse from CNS to theeffectorNorepinephrine and epinephrine are neurotransmitters to the effector organsPNS: Anatomy of the Parasympathetic DivisionOriginates from the brain stem and S1through S4Terminal ganglia are at the effector organsAlways uses acetylcholine as a neurotransmitterPNS: Autonomic FunctioningSympathetic—―fight or flight‖Response to unusual stimulusTakes over to increase activitiesRemember as the ―E‖ divisionExercise, excitement, emergency, and embarrassmentParasympathetic—―housekeeping‖ activitesConserves energyMaintains daily necessary body functionsRemember as the ―D‖ divisiondigestion, defecation, and diuresisEFFECTS OF THE SYMPATHETIC AND PARASYMPATHETIC DIVISIONS OF THE ANS
DEVELOPMENT ASPECTS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEMThe nervous system is formed during the first month of embryonicdevelopmentAny maternal infection can have extremely harmfuleffectsThe hypothalamus is one of the last areas of the brain to developNo more neurons are formed after birth, but growth and maturation continues forseveral yearsThe brain reaches maximum weight as a young adultDRUGS AND THE NERVOUS SYSTEMDrugany substance, other than food that changes the structure or functionof the bodyLegalIllegal1. StimulantsIncrease -Heart rate, Blood pressure,BreathingRelease of neurotransmitters at some synapses in the brainDeplete neurotransmitters and lead to:Fatigue Circulatory problemsHallucinations Depression2. DepressantsDec rease -Heart rate, Breathing rate, Blood pressure,Relax musclesRelieve tensionEnhances release of neurotransmitters that prevent nerves cells from firingAlcohol with depressants can lead to deathdepresses CNS to a point one stopsbreathing 3. OpiatesMimics endorphinsEndorphinnatural chemical in brain that helps overcome painWhen person stops takingBrain has adjusted to high levels of endorphinsCannot produce enough natural endorphinsSuffer uncontrollable pain and sickness
4. CocaineSudden release ofDopaminePowerful StimulantIncreases heart rate and blood pressureFirst time users can have heart attackDopamineneurotransmitter in brain that is released to give feeling of pleasure andsatisfaction 5. MarijuanaActive ingredient (THC) tetrahydrocannabinolMore destructive to lungs than cigarettes5 marijuana cigs = 120 conventional cigsResults in:Lower WBC count by 40% - susceptible to infectionsTeensinhibits maturityRetards normal brain growthMemory lossInability to concentrateFall short on memory as well as math and verbal skillsMalesreduced testosterone levels and increases estrogen levelsFemalesdisturbs menstrual cycleDNA damage to eggsMore Effects (FYI)Impaired perceptionLoss of coordinationIncreased risk of accidentsImpaired judgementLoss of motivationDiminished inhibitionsIncreased heart rateAnxiety, panic attacks, and paranoiaHallucinationsDamage to the respiratory, reproductive, and immune systemsIncreased risk of CANCERPsychological dependency6. AlcoholDepressantSlows down CNS40% of 50,000 highway deaths are caused by drinking and driving

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