Topic_5_Food_Additives.docx

It increases salivation dilutes the acid that causes

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- It increases salivation => dilutes the acid that causes tooth decay => (saccharine and sorbitol is also present in gum) - Excessive use of Xylitol may have a laxative effect. Video 4 Cyclamate - Similar structure to Saccharine - Sweetness level of x30 (30x sweeter than sugar) - 0 calories - Advantage => no bitter taste like Saccharine => why it’s added with Saccharine to cut down on the sweetness Popular until study in 1969 => rats fed 10:1 mixture of cyclamate developed tumor of bladder. Canada => banned as food additive but made available as tabletop sweetener US => complete ban both as food additive and as tabletop sweetener
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This is why “Sweet’n Low” In US => contains Saccharin but no Cyclamate In Canada => contains Cyclamate but no Saccharin. Video 5 Aspartame - Discovered by James SHLATTER - Structure => Aspartic acid + Phenylalanine + Methyl ester => important because when metabolized => releases methanol => many safety issues are a result of this methanol release Does it pose a risk? - 180x sweeter than sugar - 4 calories/g => same as all polypeptides Video 6 Aspartame - Marketed as “Equal” brand - Warning => contains phenylalanine => people suffering from PKU => accumulate phenylalanine in brain => can cause problems => why it has to come with a warning label - Not heat stable => can be used in cold products but cannot be used in cakes or similar types of products. - When it breaks down under heat => the methanol is released + linkage in compound is gone so sweetness doesn’t work Is it toxic in the levels of exposure? - LD = 20 000 – 70 000mg - Diet soda = 20mg => very small amount
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- (Apple juice = 5mg, grape juice = 24mg) - Not unsafe at all There’s a lot of anecdotal evidence that it causes Headaches, Dizziness, Fatigue or Mood Changes but there’s no studies that prove this. - Phenylalanine can give rise to many brain chemicals => Phenylethylamine, Tyrosine, Catecholamines => it has been said that heavy drinkers of these diet drinks => some of these effects might be caused by the chemical but it’s really not the case (dose too low). Video 7 Epidemiological studies show Aspartame not linked to - Parkinson’s, Multiple Sclerosis and Cancer - A number of studies have been carried out in this respect to this Aspartame has been shown correlation with brain tumor (around the time aspartame was released, brain tumor rates rose) => but there was no causative relation that linked the two together . => at the time, a new method of detection for brain tumors was discovered and this is why there was an increase in the number of detected brain tumors. Aspartame is the most studied additive - ADI is 40mg/kg of BW (in Canada)
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- Determined by animal studies by detecting the NOAEL @ 4000mg/kg - For example, => a 70kg man would have to drink 20 cans/day to reach ADI and 1600 cans/day to reach NOAEL. - ADI = NOAEL/100 in this case (to bring down to human scale) Ramazzini Study - Showed cause of cancer in rats that consumed various amounts of aspartame - Study was shown to have been poorly carried out.
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  • Fall '19
  • Flavor, Food coloring, E number, Food additive

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