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By virtue of its relatively weak condition the river

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By virtue of its relatively weak condition the river compulsorily undergoes anumber of curves or bends which makes its path zig-zag. These bends arecalled meanders and the phenomenon is known as Meandering.Meandering is therefore a characteristic feature of the mature stage.In due course of time these bends become more and more acute due todeposition of sediments along the inner curve and erosion along the outercurve. Ultimately under favourable conditions such as floods, these loopsare cut off from the main course of the river. Such cut off bodies of waterwhich are curved in plan are calledcut off lakesorhorse shoe lakesoroxbow lakes.Delta:A delta is a landform that is formedat the mouth of a riverwheretheriverflows into anocean, orsea. Deltas are formed from thedeposition of the sediment carried by the river as the flow leaves the mouthof the river. Over long periods of time, this deposition builds thecharacteristic geographic pattern of river delta.Development of delta:The favourable conditions for the formation of deltaare:1.The river should have large amount of load.2.The river should have totally exhausted its energy at the time of itsmerger with the sea.3.The oceans at the mouth of the river should not be turbulent otherwiseas & when loose sediments are deposited they are washed away by thewaves and currents of the sea.
During delta formation the prevailing conditions will be such that the riverwill be shallow and will change its direction and velocity frequently. Undersuch conditions deltas develop a typical structure known ascross bedding.The delta will have gently incline bottom layers of fine sediments known asbottom set beds. These are overlain by steeply inclined middle layers ofcoarse sediments known as forest beds. Above these again gently dippinglayers of the mixture of finer and coarser sediments occur. They are knownas top set beds. Though all these three sets of beds are inclined towards thesea, they differ in the amount of inclination and hence they are not parallel.Such a peculiar bedding phenomenon is known as cross bedding.VALLEY DEVELOPMENTVALLEYS:In geology, a valleyis a depression with predominant extent inone direction. A very deep river valley may be called acanyon or gorge.Theterms U-shaped and V-shaped are descriptive terms of geography tocharacterize the form of valley. Most valleys belong to one of these two maintypes or a mixture of them, at least with respect of the cross section of theslopes or hills.FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT:A valley is an extended depression inthe Earth's surface that is usually bounded by hills or mountains and isnormally occupied by a river or stream.Valleys are one of the most common landforms on the Earth and they areformed through erosion or the gradual wearing down of the land by windand water. In river valleys for example, the river acts as an erosional agentby grinding down the rock or soil and creating a valley. The shape of valleysvaries but they are typically steep-sided canyons or broad plains, howevertheir form depends on what is eroding it, the slope of the land, the type ofrock or soil and the amount of time the land has been eroded.

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Term
Spring
Professor
N/A
Tags
Geology, Dam

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