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Learning and culture o forms of learning 1 formal

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Learning and culture: o Forms of learning: 1. Formal learning – adults and older siblings teach a young family member “how to behave” 2. Informal learning – child learns primarily by imitating the behaviour of selected others 3. Technical learning – teacher instructs children in an educational environment. Language, symbols and rituals: o Language – members of society communicate through common language (important for advertising) o Symbol – anything that stands for something else. Marketers use symbols to convey desired product images or characteristics. 7
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o Ritual – type of symbolic activity consisting of a series of steps occurring in a fixed sequence and repeated over time. The dynamic nature of culture means that marketers have to consistently reconsider: o Why consumers are now doing what they are doing o Who the buyers and users of their products are o When consumers do their shopping o How and where the media can reach consumers o The new product and service that may be emerging Enculturation – the learning of our own culture Acculturation – the learning of a new or foreign culture. The process of acculturation results in the growth of a cosmopolitan urban community, with different ethnic groups experiencing constant interaction. This results in the development of subcultures, e.g. the dynamic growth in township cultures characterised by unique belief systems, dress codes and language patterns. Subculture – a distinctive group of people in a society who share common cultural meanings for effective and cognitive responses, behaviours and environmental factors. Subcultures include nationalities, language communities, religions, racial groups and geographic regions. Various social institutions transmit the elements of culture and make sharing of culture a reality: o Family – the primary agent for enculturation, and from a marketer’s point of view it teaches consumer- related values and skills o Educational institutions – impart basic learning skills, history, patriotism, citizenship and technical training o Houses of worship – provide religious consciousness, spiritual guidance and moral training o Mass media – disseminate information about products, ideas and causes. Individualism – emotional independence from groups, organisations, and other collectivities. Compared to people in collectivist cultures, people in individualistic societies tend to be more self-centred and self-enhanced; less willing to sacrifice for their in-groups; less loyal and emotionally attached to in-groups; and less concerned with their in-group needs, goals, norms, integrity and consequences. They tend to consider the individual self as the basic unit and a source of life identity, purpose and goals.
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