Flour should always be sifted prior to use as it removes any lumps due to

Flour should always be sifted prior to use as it

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sugar is used for different purposes than the coarser varieties. Flour should always be sifted prior to use, as it removes any lumps due to moisture or impurities. It may also uncover any pests such as moths and weevils that have affected the product. Breadcrumbs can be sifted through a coarse drum sieve to remove larger particles and check for pest contamination. Never mix processed product back into the storage bin. When measuring dry goods you can either weigh the items or use cup measures. Special measuring jugs can also be used for sugar, flour and other dry goods, which indicate the volume required for a specific weight.
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Preparation of Common Dry Goods ROUX AND PANADA A roux is a thickening agent used in soups and sauces. There are 3 types, all of which are cooked mixtures of flour and butter - ratio 1:1. Use 50-100g of flour and 50-100g of butter for 1L of liquid, depending on the thickness required for your sauce or soup. White roux - has a slightly sandy colour and is used for white sauces and soups Blond roux - coloured like wet sand and used for velouté and tomato sauce Brown roux - cooked longer to a walnut colour and used for brown sauces and soups. Cooking flour to this stage diminishes its thickening properties, so extra flour is added. Use 5-10% more flour. Substitute dripping or oil for the butter, since the higher boiling point will prevent burning/browning. For larger quantities the flour is sometimes roasted in an oven (do not use a fan-forced oven) and then added to the appropriate quantity of butter A panada acts as an extender or binder. Different types are used depending on the menu item and commodities: Bread - usually bread crumbs or soaked bread is used for meat dishes and farces, such as hamburgers, terrines, meat loaf and stuffing, to extend and lighten the mixture Rice - usually boiled and blended with meat or fish, vegetable strudel, sushi, soups and desserts Sauce - used to bind cooked meat to form croquettes or pancake fillings, crêpes and soufflés Flour - rarely used due to the influence on taste. Choux paste base can be used instead
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Batters and Coatings Batters are a mixture of flour and liquid. Many different flour types can be used, including chickpea flour, besan flour, arrowroot and regular wheat-based flours. Batters are used to coat food before frying it, which helps to keep moisture inside and give a crisp exterior. They also help to hold the food together in the deep fryer, which is an aggressive cooking environment. There are different batters that can be used to provide variety to the finished dish. The following 3 batters on the right are very popular.
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Dry Coatings Dry coatings are used for the same reasons as batters: to seal in moisture and provide menu variety. Breadcrumbs are the most commonly used dry coating, as they give an appealing taste and texture to the food, while also using up stale, leftover bread. Mie de pain is the French term for breadcrumbs and French-style breadcrumbs are made with just the white part of the bread. Other items can be mixed with the crumbs to alter the flavour, such as desiccated coconut, almonds (flaked or ground), hazelnut meal, macadamia nuts or wattle seeds.
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