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Cervical column pg 8 o the cervical region consists

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Cervical columnpg. 8
oThe cervical region consists of seven vertebrae. Each vertebrae has foramina inthe transverse processes (called transvers foramen).oThe typical cervical vertebrae has a spinous process that is Y shaped at the tipoThe first cervical vertebrae (C1) lacks a distinct body and has a reduced spiousand transverse processIt is named atlasIt articulates with the occipital condyles of the skullPermitting a rocking back and forth motion.oThe second cervical vertebra has a modified extension of the body called the dens(odontoid process).Articulates with the atlas in the are where the body would be located andheld in place by a ligament.Permits a rotation of the head and neck side to sideNamed axisoAs cervical vertebrae come closer to the thoracic they become more like thoseThoracic columnoThe thoracic region consists of 12 vertebraeoArticulates with the cervical vertebrae and each following thoracic vertebrae.The lowest articulates with the lumbar vertebrae.oEach thoracic vertebrae articulates with a pair of ribs (laterally) forming thethoracic cage.The cage moves up and down and changes volume during breathing asinhalation and exhalation occurs.Lumbar columnoConsists of five robust vertebrae with thickened transverse and spinous processesoThis region is supported by the interaction of the intervertebral discs, ligamentsalong the spine, and muscles of the lower back and abdomen.oThe lumbar region tends to be the more mobile region.Sacral columnoThe sacral region is composed of five elements (which were fused duringembryonic development into the sacrum)The elements fused at the body, transverse processes, and laminaThe fusion formed a series of sacral foramen on the anterior and posteriorsurface of the sacrumThe shape of the sacrum differs by genderThe male sacrum is typically curved anteriorly at the lumbar endThe female sacrum is flattened, which is an adaptation for childbirth.Coccyx columnoThe coccyx is composed of four highly reduced structures, consisting of the bodywith the elements being fused togetherThoracic cagepg. 9
oThe thorax is the torso of the axial skeleton (commonly called chest)Composed of 37 boney elementsEncloses the heart and lungsProvides protection for vital structuresThe boney elements of the twelve thoracic vertebrae articulate with twelvepairs of ribsTen pair of ribs attach to the elongated sternum by costal (hyaline)cartilageoThe first seven pairs attach directly to the sternum and areidentified as true ribsoPairs eight, nine, and ten attach through the cartilage of theseventh pair and are identified as false ribsoThe first pair of ribs attaches to the manubrium of thesternumoThe next six pairs attach to the body (gladiolas) of thesternumThe inferior end of the sternum is the xiphoid process, whichextends over the liver in the abdomen (where the rectus abdominusmuscle inserts)Appendicular skeletonThe appendicular skeleton is composed of approximately 126 bones, which are freelymovableIt is divided into an upper and lower grouping.

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Term
Fall
Professor
Jane Smith
Tags
hyaline cartilage

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