working during this period and sold some scenarios to Gaumont before making his own shorts.Societe Film d’Art– or Film d'Art movement was rapidly rising in prominence during the era, using stage productions with theatrical actors to present classic plays on the screen shot entirely on transparently artificial sets. They were not cinematic - they seemed ﬂat and uninviting, with camera movement nonexistent and cutting reduced to scene shifts from one static tableau to the next. By 1913 European filmmakers were having commercial and critical success with longer films, such as Henri Desfontaines and Louis Mercanton’s Queen Elizabeth (Les Amours de la reine Élisabeth, 1912). This was part of the film d’art movement, starring the great stage actress Sarah Bernhardt. The French were trying to make serious, highbrow art films using stage actors and plays to attract middle class audiences.Major French film companies – Pathé, Gaumont, and Éclair were all hit hard by the effects of World War I and forced to cut back on production – this aided Hollywood as it cranked out products and flooded into these empty markets.ItalyItalian film genres – In Italy, the spectacle reigned supreme, as producers vied to outdo each other in presenting historical re-creations on a vast scale. The war caused producers to create more patriotic films that supported the propaganda efforts of the government. The demand for spectacles and “vamp” romances eventually collapsed under the strain of ceaseless repetition, and the Italian cinema began to cannibalize itself. Assunta Spina in 1915 was famous because of Francesca Bertini's realistic, subtle performance that pointed the way to a new type of acting for cinema away from the exaggerated mime and title cards of earlier works like Cabiria.Enrico Guazzoni’s Quo Vadis? - a nine-reel (roughly 120 minutes at silent speed) Italian film produced in 1912, which was released internationally to considerable acclaim. The first blockbuster super-spactacle costume drama.