Prokaryotes do not have membrane enclosed organelles

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Prokaryotes do not have membrane enclosed organelles except for bacteria with membrane-enclosed structures called vesicles (or vacuoles) Complex photosynthetic membranes in cyanobacteria Asexual, one copy of chromosome No exo- or endocytosis Ribosomes are smaller and simpler Divide by binary fission (prokaryotic fission in the lab manual) Genetic code is almost identical to that of eukaryotes Metabolic pathways are almost identical to those of eukaryotes Membrane structure is almost identical to that of eukaryotes Animals, Protists, Fungi, and Plants  10-100 µM in size Appeared 1.5 billion years ago Double membrane-bound nucleus containing most of cells DNA (chromatin, nucleoplasm) Nucleolus – DNA information for ribosomes 4.6 mm DNA in yeasts but much more in eukaryotes - (1.5 X 10 7 bp to 5 X 10 9 (bp = base pairs) Multiple, linear, DNA molecules with associated proteins Cytoskeleton Numerous membranous and membrane bound organelles. Example: Mitochondria and ER Microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments in the cytoskeleton Bisexual, 2 copies of each chromosome usually Exocytosis & Endocytosis Ribosomes are larger and more complex Divide by mitosis and meiosis Genetic code is almost identical to that of prokaryotes Metabolic pathways are almost identical to those of prokaryotes Membrane structure is almost identical to that of prokaryotes
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Cell Wall: Covers and protects bacterial cell. It also gives it shape Plasma Membrane: Cell boundary of all living things including this cell and it covers cytoplasm Flagellum: It is for the mobility of the cell, it spins in some prokaryote cells to move cell Cytoplasm: Highly concentrated solution of chemicals and molecules. Consists of genetic material, ribosomes and the inside of cells. Ribosomes: Essential for protein synthesis, and it consists of proteins and message RNA. Nucleoid: Consists of genetic material condensed (chromosomes) with no internal membrane system covering it. Chromosomes: Are circular and packed loosely and suspended in cytoplasm
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Plasmids: Other set of genetic material and are also circular but small. They’ve got nothing to do with bacteria function and they can replicate on their own. They have genes for antibiotic resistance and things of that sort.
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