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oTardiness the tendency to arrive at work late (or leave work early). ‐oLong breaks involve longerthannormal lunches, soda breaks, coffee ‐‐breaks, and so forth that provide a physical escape from work. oMissing meetings employees neglect important work functions while ‐away from the office. oAbsenteeism occurs when employees miss an entire day of work. oQuitting voluntarily leaving the organization. ‐Continued
Independent forms model of withdrawal argues that the various withdrawal behaviors are uncorrelated with one another, occur for different reasons, and fulfill different needs on the part of employees. o“I can’t stand my job, so I do what I can to get by”oSometimes I’m absent, sometimes I socialize, sometimes I come in late. There’s no real rhyme or reason to it; I just do whatever seems practical at the timeCompensatory forms model of withdrawal argues that the various withdrawal behaviors negatively correlate with one another—that doing one means you’re less likely to do another.o“I can’t handle being around my boss. I hate to miss work, so I do what’s needed to avoid being absent. I figure if I socialize a bit and spend some time surfing the Web. I don’t need to ever be absent… but if I couldn’t do those things, I’d definitely have to go home, a lot “Progression model of withdrawal argues that the various withdrawal behaviors are positively correlated: The tendency to daydream or socialize leads to the tendency to come in late or take long breaks, which leads to the tendency to be absent or quit. oI just don’t have any respect for my employer anymore. In the beginning, I’d daydream a bit during work or socialize with my colleagues. As time went on, I began coming in late or taking a long lunch. Lately I’ve been staying home altogether, and I’m starting to think I should quitThe firm movie clip – continuance model oCompensation – they were paying a great wage and 20% more than the highest offer. oThe firm encourages children… they want stability – embeddness (link and sacrifice – embedding them into a community)oRed flag – he bribed the committee office, investigator checking phone records, that firm could only use that type of commitment because of their client… but when you are highly embedded, it’s hard to leaveTrends that Affect CommitmentDiversity of the workforce oMinority groups make up approximately onethird of the workforce ‐o47 percent of the jobs are filled by women oThe workforce is aging The % of members of the workforce who are 60 years or older is expected to grow to 10 percentoMore and more employees are foreignborn ‐Half of the Ph.Ds working in the U.S. are foreign-born as are 45 percent of the physicists, computer scientists, and mathematiciansThe change in employee – employer relationships brought about by a generation of downsizing makes it more challenging to retain valued employees.