The 3 main technological advances that are argued for

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The 3 main technological advances that are argued for by White, and counter argued by Blaut: 1 Heavy Plow a Arguments by White: i Originated in Europe in 6 th century 1 However, similar plows pulled by teams of 24 oxen seen in India as early as before time of Christ. 2 Not a European revolutionary item 3 So Innovation should not be attributed to this technology since it was seen before, but rather the social forces that led Europe to be introduced to the heavy plow, which did allow for advantageous farming in European environment. a E.g. Feudalism ii Led to increased population due to the greater farming 1 Change to open field system a Open field system used Early Asia and Africa 2 Led to human cooperation a Ignores fact that there were still manors, lords, etc. or that human cooperation existed at all before Medieval Europe b Communal ownership of fields where people had to cooperate even MORE than Europe. 2 “The Discovery of Horse-Power”/ Use of Horse Collar a Arguments by White: i Replaced Oxen by being much more efficient/faster at transporting agriculture and grain in Europe 1 Large increase in agricultural production/commerce 2 Villages became larger (“urbanized”) a Led to “urban” life (Schools, churches etc.) b Horse collar actually used in early Eurasia for camels. c Also, Horse may be more efficient, but much more costly i Horse DID NOT replace ox in Europe. d Village size had nothing to do with use of horses. i Other villages in world were much larger. ii In China, Long distance grain transport through canals 3 Introduction of 3-field system a Arguments by White: i Oats could be planted 1 Wider-spread use of horse power ii Farmers could now grow legumes 1 Improved European diet
a Led to population growth, and expansion of cities b Rise of industrial production c Commerce 2 However, no evidence of population being “held back” by unbalanced diet. 3 Legumes were already being planted and consumed elsewhere. b Three Field system was already used in other parts of the world so it is not Europe-Unique, nor invented by Europe. c 2- field system benefitted other societies over 3-field for grazing purposes. Causes of Technological Change according to White Rationality of Europeans, closely tied to religion, primarily, “Western Christianity”. “Progressive” in the sense that it separated man from nature so that it gave rise to the exploitation of land, and thus leading to commerce and capitalism. Versus other religious, deemed inferior due to not being able to separate man from nature. Inferior mindset, thus falling commercially and technologically . In reality, medieval Christianity did not see man as completely separate from nature. That mindset of commercializing nature and its separation from man has nothing to do with religion.

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