O reducing fertility invoked less these days because

This preview shows page 8 - 10 out of 19 pages.

o Reducing fertility. Invoked less these days because of the population bomb (fertility has in fact really been reduced in the last years). How to measure fertility = total fertility rate = sum of the age specific fertility rates of women able to carry a child. It is the number of children a women is expected to have over a lifetime. That figure for Canada = below 2. US = above 2 (only dvped country with that rate because of minorities in the US with high fertility). European rich countries have lower fertility rates (around 1). Lowering fertility means healthier populations. Educated mothers are likely to have lower fertilities, and in turn their daughters will have low fertility rates as well. o Environmental protection = the poor cause an awful lot of destruction of agriculture.
o Some people argue that reducing poverty means more social stability = healthy articulate civil society where conflicts are worked out in peaceful ways = more stable society. o Reducing poverty = reducing terrorism. Very short-sighted vision. So many good reasons to want to reduce poverty, to invest in sustainable development. Approaches of the past: Principle fields were at first mainly economic growth = targeted invt in selected sectors which would allow for a general takeoff that would in turn cause a trickle down effect therefore benefiting the entire economy. 1970s = many people couldnt find empirical evidence of the trickle down effect = resources would only benefit a few people. The buzz word was therefore redistribution with growth = still want economic growth but you want to make sure the market mechanism would redistribute the money to the entirety of the population, and not concentrate them into the hands of the rich o 1970s = UN = basic human needs emphasis = what were basic H needs = housing, education, health.. + tried to mobilize projects to try to satisfy those needs. Therefore, this was a great reversal = no longer only concentrate on economic growth but also social factors. Produced growth but social has no improved = put money directly into schools, health infrastructure etc.. o Then pb of who knows what those basic needs are? = problem of the white putting himself on top of others, as if he knew everything better = the white decide what the poor need. o These approaches are essentially technocratic = a technical solution is found to satisfy these needs. This did work sometimes, but not so often 1980s = 1960/1970s saw a lot of generosity fuelled by the incredible economic expansion of rich countries. BUT then comes the backsplash of the generosity. The argument was that there was now a capitalist system, and needed to make it work even better than it did. People talked about scientific capitalism = at the same time, the SU was not dead yet and they were talking about scientific socialism. This means complete trust in market operations and willingness to be totally ruthless in applying capitalism to development programs = thus the SAPs. Study of capitalism will teach countries that they need a stable currencies so they will accept SAPs on condition that they stabilize their currency.

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture