The use of ethos is called an ethical appeal Note that this is very different

The use of ethos is called an ethical appeal note

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The use of ethos is called an "ethical appeal." Note that this is very different from our usual understanding of the word "ethical." Pathos "Pathos" is used to describe the rhetor's attempt to appeal to (in the words of the course packet) "an audience's sense of identity, their self-interest, and their emotions." If the rhetor can create a common sense of identity with their audience, then the rhetor is using a pathetic appeal, or a rhetorical appeal using pathos ("pathetic" here means something different than our usual understanding of the word). So if that college English professor above mentions having played basketball in high school and convinces the audience that she or he was pretty good, then not only does that fact strengthen the rhetor's ethos, it also makes a pathetic appeal. "Pathos" most often refers to an attempt to engage an audience's emotions. Think about the different emotions people are capable of feeling: they include love, pity, sorrow, affection, anger, fear, greed, lust, and hatred. Let's say a rhetor is trying to convince an audience to donate money to a hurricane relief fund. The rhetor can make pathetic appeals to an audience's feelings of love, pity, and fear. (And the extent to which any of these emotions will be successfully engaged will vary from audience to audience.) "Love" will be invoked if the audience can be made to believe in their fundamental connections to other human beings. "Pity" will be felt if the plight of the homeless hurricane victim can be made very vivid to the audience. And "fear" might work if the audience can be made to imagine what they would feel like in that homeless victim's place. If the rhetor works all of these things together properly
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