bei ng s uit ed ro diff e re nt circ um scan ces Amo ng Sco ttish eng in ee rin

Bei ng s uit ed ro diff e re nt circ um scan ces amo

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bei ng s uit ed ro diff e re nt circ um scan ces. Amo ng Sco ttish eng in ee rin g co mp a ni es, Burn s a nd ----- C HAPTER 6 O RGANIZATI ON STR UCTU RE AND MA!<A G J<MENT S YSTEM S l 63 TABLE 6 .1 \ led1an1'-lK \t.:r,u") org._anll or ~.1111/ .. J11onJI forn,.., f eat u re M echa nist ic for ms O rga nic fo rm s Task defi nition coo r d1 natIon and con tr ol Comm u n1 cat1on K no wled ge C ommi1m e nt and loyalty Environ menta l con r ex t R,g,d and hi gh ly specialized Ru les and dir ec t iv es vertically ,mposed Ve rt ic al Cenrral,zed To 1mmed 1at e superior Stable with l ow technological uncertai nt y Flexible and broadly denned Mutual ad Justment. common culture Verttcal and horizontAI Dispersed To the organ,zat ,on and ,ts goals Dynamic with Stgntncanr techno logic al uncertainry and dmb1gu1ty sourc~: Adap l ed from Ric ha rd Butl er , Des ,gn, ng Or ga n,zar,ons · A Dec,s,on-Mak,ng Perspecr,ve (London Routleage. 1991 J 76. by j'.:..e1 m1-.s1<.ri of (eng age Learni ng . S ta l ke r fo und ch at fi r ms in st able environments h ad m echanL,ticfo nn s. c hara c ter iz ed by bureauc racy; th ose in less stable ma r ket s had O T].i a ni cfo rm s th at we re less fo rmal and mo re fl exi bl e. '-' T ab le 6.J co ntrasts k ey c ha racteristics o f the tw o fo rm s . By th e 1970s, co ntin gency th eo,y- c he idea the re wa s no one best way to o ~a - nize ; it de pend ed up on !he s1ra1egy be i ng p ursued . the te c hnol ogy empl oyed. and th e su rro un din g environment -h ad become widely acce pte d. '• Alth ough G oo gle and Mc Do nald 's are of similar sizes in terms of revt: nue , t hei r s tru ccur es and system s a re ve ry d iffe re nt. McDo nald ·s is ltighly b ur eauc ra tize d : high levels of job spt:cia l- iza tio n, fo rm al sys ce ms , and a sc ro ng e mp hasis on rule s and p rocedures . Goog le e mp h as i zes in fo rm ality, l ow j ob specia liz aci o n. hor iz o nta l co mmuni catio n. and t he impo rta nce of prin c ip les ove r ru les. T hese differenc es reflecc differ e nc es in straceg y. t ec h no l ogy, hu ma n r eso ur ces, and th e dy namism of the bu s iness e n vironments that eac h fi rm occ u pies. In ge n era l, th e mo re scan dardized goods or services ( beverage ca ns, bl oo d t es t s, or ha ircuts for a rm y in <lu c ce es) are a nd the mo re st :ible the e nvi- ro nment i s, t he greacer are th e efficien cy advantages of the bu r eaucr:ui c model w i th its sta n dard operat in g pr oced ur es and high levels of s pec iali zat io n . Om:e m ar k ets beco me t ur bule nt , or in n ovatio n becomes desirable. o r buyers requ i re cus to m ized p roducts -Ch en !h e buream .-ra cic model b reak s down . Th ese cont in gency faccors also cause funccions wichin companies to be o rga - nized d ifferently. Stabl e, scan da r dize d act ivit ies su ch as payroll. tr e asury. taxation, cusco me r supp ort, a nd pu rchasi ng ac civit ie s tend to o perace well when o rganiz e d alo ng bu r eauc ratic pr inciples ; r esearc h , new produc t d ev el o pment , marketing. and stra t egic plan ning r equ ire more organic mod es of organization .
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