Total time hypothesis the proposal that amount

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Total time hypothesis: The proposal that amount learned is a simple function of the amount of time spent on the learning task. Trace decay: The gradual weakening of memories resulting from the mere passage of time. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS): A technique in which magnetic pulses briefly disrupt the functioning of a given brain area; administration of several pulses in rapid succession is known as repetitive transcranial stimulation (rTMS). Transfer-appropriate processing (TAP): Proposal that retention is best when the mode of encoding and mode of retrieval are the same. Traumatic brain injury (TBI): Caused by a blow or jolt to the head, or by a penetrating head injury. Normal brain function is disrupted. Severity ranges from “mild” (brief change in mental status or consciousness) to “severe” (extended period of unconsciousness or amnesia after the injury). Typicality effect: The finding that the time taken to decide a category member belongs to a category is less for typical than atypical members. Unconscious transference: The tendency of eyewitnesses to misidentify a familiar (but innocent) face as belonging to the culprit. Unlearning: The proposition that the associative bond linking a stimulus to a memory trace will be weakened when the trace is retrieved in error when a different trace is sought. Verbal learning: A term applied to an approach to memory that relies principally on the learning of lists of words and nonsense syllables. Verbal overshadowing: The reduction in recognition memory for faces that often occurs when eyewitnesses provide verbal descriptions of those faces before the recognition- memory test. Visuo-spatial sketchpad: A component of the Baddeley and Hitch model that is assumed to be responsible for the temporary maintenance of visual and spatial information. Visuo-spatial STM: Retention of visual and/ or spatial information over brief periods of time. von Restorff effect: The finding that a to-be-remembered item that is distinctively different from other items is especially likely to be remembered. Weapon focus: The finding that eyewitnesses have poor memory for details of a crime event because they focus their attention on the culprit’s weapon. Word length effect: A tendency for verbal memory span to decrease when longer words are used.
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Working memory: A memory system that underpins our capacity to “keep things in mind” when performing complex tasks. Working memory capacity: An assessment of the how much information can be processed and stored at the same time. Working memory span: Term applied to a range of complex memory span tasks in which simultaneous storage and processing is required. Working self: A concept proposed by Conway to account for the way in which autobiographical knowledge is accumulated and used. Retrieval: Process of recovering memories based on one or more cues. -Remembered by associations or links Although there are many theories, one useful and simple idea is that retrieval occurs by a process called spreading activation. According to this idea, each memory has an internal state of its own, reflecting how “excited” or “active” it is, a state referred to as the memory’s activation level. encoding specificity principle. This principle states that for a cue to be useful, it needs to be present at encoding, and encoded with the desired trace.
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  • Spring '17
  • Leyre Castro Ruiz
  • Long-Term Memory, Memory processes, memory impairment

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