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In comparison, Shafer-Landau and Railton both argue that morality is based off ofsocial norms. With this in mind, they explain that individual’s morals are driven by their appearance in society and how other people view them. The consequences of being immoral will lead to an individual being shunned by society so a person is forced to have moral values that they would not normally abide by if the pressures from society were notpresent. Although the authors agree that morality is based off of societal norms, they havedifferent views on where the motivation for morality stems form. Shafer-Landau believes that motivation for rightness stems from the moral beliefs of an individual, while Railton believes the motivation for rightness stems from a less personal position where a person makes decisions based on what is morally required. Shafer-Landau argues that the consequences are the sole element in morality, while Railton states that alienation is the consequence of morality because of the detachment that comes from morality. In Shafer-Landau’s argument, he explains that consequentialists understand what is good and what
is bad, aside from what is right and wrong while Railton’s argument explains that individuals have morals for their own self-esteem and self-interests, no matter if they are good or bad, right or wrong. Railton argues that individuals want to feel good about their choices and appeal to societies norms while Shafer-Landaus argues that doing what is right is in the eyes of the beholder. From a deontologist perspective, consequentialism fails to include the personal aspect of consequences in the stress of making choices. In deontology, an individual feels as though they have a specific duty to fulfill, that the choice that they make is a test of their overall character. For example, many people do not necessarily want to join the army but many feel that they have a duty to fulfill by defending their country. For this reason, deontology objects to consequentialism by arguing that consequences are not the only element involved with morality. Deontology instead argues that there is also a