and deviating from the project scenario’s story line tends to focus students’ attention on irrelevant or less important learning objectives. • Working with English Language Learners: Students who are learning to speak, read, and write English can benefit greatly from Project Based Learning, but special scaffolding may be necessary. They may need more time to complete tasks, more vocabulary-building, and more peer-to-peer support. Some of the authentic-sounding documents presented in PBE scenarios may contain jargon, slang, or cultural references that will need to be explained. When forming small groups, care should be taken to assign students learning English to teams with supportive and skilled members. Finally, oral presentations may present special challenges — ELL students may be allowed to participate to a lesser extent than other group members, and/or be given questions to be answered later in writing rather than “on the spot.” Teaching Running in Place Sequence of the Unit Like the other BIE Project Based Economics units, students complete Running in Place by following a standard set of ctivities in a proscribed order. But within these activities, there will be variation in the timing and in the way students complete them. The sequence of instructional activities is described below. This sequence is logical, and is based upon extensive pilot testing in high school Economics classrooms. It is also informed by research into effective instruction. Although changes may be necessary to meet time constraints, address the needs of specific student populations, or include additional instruc- tional materials and learning opportunities, we strongly encourage teachers to adhere to the sequence of activities as closely as possible — at least during the first several times Running in Place is taught. Each instructional activity is discussed in more detail in the following section, the Step-by-Step Teaching Guide. Pre-Project Planning 0. Teacher prepares for successful project implementation. Launching the Project 1. Students receive the letter from Holden Grant and discuss it as a whole class. 36
Framing the Inquiry 2. Students develop the initial “know” list with the teacher (whole-class discussion). 3. Students develop the initial Driving Question with the teacher (whole-class discus- sion). 4. Students develop the initial “need to know” list with the teacher (whole-class dis- cussion). Problem-Solving and Learning Activities 5. Students view part one of the video with interviews of consumers of shoes and discuss it as a whole class. 6. Students revise the know/need to know list with the teacher (whole-class discus- sion). 7. Teacher provides clarifying lesson # 1 on product markets.