12 de 1990 à 1996 les é missions mondiales ont

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12. De 1990 à 1996, les é missions mondiales ont progress é de 17 %, celles des É tats-Unis de 9 %, du Japon de 11 %. Les pays de l UE ont presque stabilis é les leurs (France : +1.6 %, Italie +3 %, Grande Bretagne 0,4 %, Allemagne 8 %). Les pays é mergents ont fait des bonds spectaculaires (Chine : +33 %, Inde : +44 %, Cor é e : +75 %). Pourtant la Chine et l Inde, qui regroupent à elles deux pr è s de la moiti é du genre humain, restent bien loin de peser sur le total mondial, qui cro î t moiti é moins vite. 13. Par rapport au point de rep è re de 1990, et d ici 2O10 en moyenne mobile sur 4 ans, il s agit de r é duire les é missions de 6 GES d une quantit é é quivalente en gaz carbo- nique de : 8 % pour l UE, 7 % pour les Etats-Unis, 6 % pour le Japon, 5,2 % pour l Annexe 1.
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L ’é conomie mondiale de demain : vers un essor durable ? 180 OCDE 1999 14. La Commission europ é enne propose une pollutaxe combinant la lutte contre les GES et la lutte pour les é conomies d ’é nergie, quelle qu en soit la source. 15. Il s agit toujours de m é canismes par les quels un pays finance une r é duction de la pol- lution dans un pays et prend à son compte la r é duction obtenue. 16. La Commission de l Union europ é enne envisage une pollutaxe de 10 dollars par baril d ’é quivalent p é trole, qu elle consid è re comme suffisante pour rejoindre un niveau sou- tenable en Europe. C est un prix plafond pour les QELRO, le prix plancher pourrait donc ê tre de l ordre de 8 dollars par Bep.
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OE uvrer pour la viabilit é é cologique mondiale : vers une nouvelle « grande transformation » 181 OCDE 1999 Bibliographie AGARWAL, A. et S. NARAIN (1991), Global Warming in an Unequal World : A Case of Environnemental Colonialism. New Delhi : Center for Science and Environment. BARKER, T. (1997), « Taxing Pollution Instead of Taxing Jobs : Towards More Employment Without More Inflation Through Fiscal Reform in the U.K. » in T. O Riordan (dirs. publ.) Ecotaxation . Londres : Earthscan. COMMISSARIAT G É N É RAL DU PLAN (1998), Energie 2010-2020 . Paris : CGP. COMMISSION DES NATIONS UNIES POUR L ENVIRONNEMENT (1995), Our Common Future , Nations Unies. DIW DEUTSCHES INSTITUT F Ü R WIRTSCHAFTSFORSCHUNG (1994), « The Economic Effect of Ecological Tax Reform » , DIW s Economic Bulletin n ° 7, Bonn. GLYNN et al. (1990), « The Rise and Fall of the Golden Age : An Historical Analysis of Post-war Capitalism in the Developed Market Economies » , Marglin & Schor (dirs. publ.) The Golden Age of Capitalism : Reinterpreting the Postwar Experience. Oxford et New York : Clarendon Press. GODARD, O. (1996), « Strat é gies industrielles et conventions d environnement : de l univers stabilis é aux univers controvers é s » , Environnement- É conomie , Actes du Colloque de Paris, 15-16 f é vrier 1993, INSEE-M é thodes n ° 39-40, p. 145-174.
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