Howev er there was a significant increase in the

Info icon This preview shows pages 3–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
mals or patients were not significantly different. Howev- er, there was a significant increase in the magnitude of these SCRs during the pre-hunch period, relative to the pre-punishment period, but only for normals ( P , 0.01). The SCRs from normals during pre-hunch were also significantly higher than the SCRs of patients during both pre-punishment and pre-hunch ( P , 0.01). Be- cause all normals generated anticipatory SCRs, where- as all patients did not, Fisher’s exact test, based on the hypergeometric distribution, yielded a one-sided P , 0.001. SCRs from normals who selected cards from the bad decks during the hunch period were compared to the SCRs associated with sampling the good decks. The same comparisons of SCRs were done for the conceptual period. Although SCRs from the bad decks during the hunch or the conceptual period were gener- ally higher than those from the good decks, the differ- ence did not reach statistical significance. However, Newman-Keuls tests comparing SCRs from the hunch or the conceptual period to those from the pre-punish- ment period revealed significant differences in the case of the bad decks ( P , 0.01) but not the good decks. This suggests that SCR activity was sustained in the case of the bad decks, but may have been subsiding in the case of the good decks. 9. A similar ANOVA in which mean number of cards selected was used instead of SCRs revealed, most importantly, a significant three-way interaction of group with period with decks [ F (1,14) 5 6.9, P , 0.02]. With subsequent Newman-Keuls tests, the most relevant comparison was that patients selected significantly more cards from the bad decks relative to the good decks during the pre-hunch period ( P , 0.01). By contrast, controls selected more from the good decks relative to the bad decks (the difference was not statistically significant). During the hunch and conceptual periods, controls selected signifi- cantly more cards from the good decks relative to the bad decks ( P , 0.01). By contrast, patients still se- lected more cards from the bad decks relative to the good decks during the conceptual period (the differ- ence was not statistically significant). 10. Supported by the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke grant PO1 NS19632. 29 October 1996; accepted 30 January 1997 Single Molecule Force Spectroscopy on Polysaccharides by Atomic Force Microscopy Matthias Rief, Filipp Oesterhelt, Berthold Heymann, Hermann E. Gaub Recent developments in piconewton instrumentation allow the manipulation of single molecules and measurements of intermolecular as well as intramolecular forces. Dextran filaments linked to a gold surface were probed with the atomic force microscope tip by vertical stretching. At low forces the deformation of dextran was found to be dominated by entropic forces and can be described by the Langevin function with a 6 angstrom Kuhn length. At elevated forces the strand elongation was governed by a twist of bond angles.
Image of page 3

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern