193Surviving Anglo-Norman episcopal lists generally give a consistent succession from Eardwulf onwards (see Appendix I.a ). They are also consistent for the period before Bishop Ecgberht (or at least before Higbald) when, verifiably, they are able to draw on the early–ninth-century list(s) and on an independent chronicle. Distinct however is the treatment of the bishops intervening between Ecgberht and Eardwulf; the difference allows Anglo-Norman lists to be divided up into two groups.194The first group does not mention any intervening bishops, and Ecgberht is simply followed by Eardwulf. The group includes William of Malmesbury and (his source) the early–twelfth-century episcopal lists in OCCC 157.195The other group of episcopal lists, those produced from Durham in the time of Symeon and Bishop Ranulf Flambard, have three bishops inserted between Ecgberht and Eardwulf: Heathored, Ecgred, and Eanberht.196Although neither group of lists is obviously early, the Worcester–Malmesbury tradition is very likely to predate the Symeonic one. The 193Keynes, Atlas, tables XXXVII, XLIV, LIV; Sawyer, nos. 407, 412, 413, 416, 417, 418a, 425, 434, 544, 549, 550, 679, 675, 681, 781; the overlapping charter is no. 425 from the Canterbury archive, dated 28 May 934, where he occurs between Wigred and Æscbyrht. In no. 436 Sexhelm is styled Sexhelm Sancti Cuthberhti, but this appears to be twelfth century in origin. 194The outlines of this distinction are recognized by Rollason, LDE, 3, n. 4. 195GPA, 410–11: iii.140.5; OCCC 157, p. 45. 196For these lists, Rollason, LDE, 4–5, DPSA, 381, Meehan, HWSD, 136 (Liège University MS 369C fol. 94r in facsimile), and R. Sharpe, ‘Symeon as Pamphleteer’, in Symeon of Durham, 214–29, at 229. The last, a historical miscellany relating to Lindisfarne, Hexham and Durham preserved in York Minster Library, MS XVI.I.12, was dismissed by Craster as ‘a short chronicle … from 625 to 847’ of ‘no historical value’ (Craster, ‘Red Book’, 507); Sharpe has shown it to have been put together in the reign of Henry I, with its own value in understanding the formation of Durham’s contemporary historical pretensions (Sharpe, ibid., 216–17). The ‘chronicle’ ends with lists of bishops of York and of Lindisfarne, and with the latter ending in the Heathured-Ecgred-Eanberht combination present in other Symeonic texts.
66 compiler of the former presumably got his Durham episcopal list from Durham, and had no obvious reason to go out of his way to remove bishops already present. The lists as a whole are about England, they are not particularly interested in Durham. The Symeonic compilers on the other hand had a much more substantial as well as ongoing interest in the history of Durham. In the era of Symeon they were engaged in ‘historical research’ to construct a fuller account of the church’s history, a process culminating in Libellus de Exordio.