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joined the Democratic party and the Whig party disappeared. 11) The Brooks-Sumner Affair (1856). This Senate fight made it easier for both sides to form ugly stereotypes of each other. 12) The Dred Scott decision (1857). Made compromise over slavery in the territories impossible since it invalidated closing any territory to slavery. Supreme Court said that slaves are not citizens. 13) John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry, VA (1859). Brown became a martyr in the North and made the South fearful ofthe North's intentions toward slavery. 14) The election ofLincoln to the Presidency (1860), Republicans had run on a platform of forbidding any future expansion ofslavery. Lincoln received no Southern electoral votes-the South correctly understood that Lincoln's election was the beginning ofthe end for the "Southern way oflife." , ... 5/22/2003
Civil War & Reconstruction Page 2 of3 ill. Why the South Seceded from the Union and why the North Objected to Secession. The South seceded to preserve its social and economic systems which were based on black slave labor. By February 22, 1861, seven southern states had organized The Confederate States ofAmerica. The North objected to southern secession because it threatened the survival ofthe republic. The Civil War began on April 12, 1861 when Lincoln maneuvered South Carolina into fIring on the U.S. troops in Fort Sumter located on an island in Charleston's harbor. IV. The Military Aspects of the Civil War. 1) The North's industrial base and greater manpower gave it a tremendous advantage. The Union Anny outnumbered the Confederate Anny 5 to 2. 2) The South made three major errors: a) ithad a romantic concept ofwar and did not adequately prepare for a war ofattrition; b) itput its faith in "King Cotton" to win European support; and, c) it adopted a defensive policy which allowed the North to take the initiative in battle. 3) The successful Northern military strategy: a) divided the South along the Mississippi River; b) penetrated the heart ofthe Confederacy through Georgia (Sherman'S March to the Sea); c) captured the Confederate capital of Richmond; and, d) blockaded the Confederate coast. The Battles of Gettysburg and Vicksburg, in July 1863, ensured Southern defeat. The South surrendered April 9, 1865. Lincoln was assassinated April 14, 1865. 4) 618,000 dead. 360,000 Union, 258,000 Confederate. V. Northern Racial Views. 1) Lincoln's racial views illustrate the ambivalence that many northerners had about slavery and blacks. For Lincoln, one belief-the value ofthe Union-was more important than another belief-the moral wrong of slavery. 2) The Emancipation Proclamation (September, 1862) was an attempt to end the war and keep European powers from supporting the Confederacy. By issuing the Proclamation, Lincoln changed the nature ofthe war. After January 1863, in addition to being a war to preserve the Union, the Civil War also became a war ofemancipation. Lincoln reinforced this view with the Gettysburg Address.