of the military; marshall law declared September 1978. 1979, 16thJan Shah state she is going for a holiday and doesn’t return, Feb Khomeini returns to Iran. Beginning of the Iranian revolution. President; Bani-Sadr (left of centre politician), Bazargan (PM), Khomeini (Supreme leader of the revolution). LECTURE 3 – PAN-Arabism: The Arab league and Ba’thismPan Arabism1.Intellectual origin’s2.Institutional expression: Arab league3.Ba’thismWith the breakup of the Ottoman emprie, there was a need to refigure the political landscape. New constructions of identity and those constructions focused on intellectuals and ethnic identity. There was never a consensus position on this.Arab Nationalist intellectualsNahda movement – this is a mostly literary movement, cultural movement at second half of the 19thcentury. Arab literature that sought to revive the arab culture traditions particularly in writing as a
counter to the ottoman empire. Certain arab nationalists started to stress the special character of the culture and society and therefore potential for arab policital arangements in the post ottoman era.Different visions of what arab and arabist meant. Earlier thinkers such as Butrus al-BustaniBustani was from Beriut. Another writier Abd al Rahman al-Kawakibi stressed that it fell to the arabs to revive the world in the post ottoman era and clashed often with authoritys and may have been poisoned by them.Antun Sa’da a Syrian nationaists. Focus on geography. Many of them aren’t mainstream arabs; some have Christian background, some were of non-Arab origin, some Kurdish. Seeking to reconfigure a new Arab society.Sati al-Husri. His definition of what an Arab was was based upon a sense of history and language. Born in Yemen, Syrian family, first language Turkish, studied in Europe. Strongly influenced by German philosophy. Every Arab speaking person is Arabic; being Arabic wasn’t a question of self-identity. Recognised the primacy of Egypt in the Arab world. ARAB POLITICAL MOVEMENTSArab Congress (Paris, 1913). Arabs trying to organise themselves in political times. The group mostly from greater Syria, a mixture of Christians and Muslims, moderate/Westernised individuals seeking some autonomy/decentralisation of power. Arab revolt 1916; British gov attacks Ottoman troops. Within the area of Palestine/Syria there’s some Arab nationalist activity and public hangings of Arab nationalists by the Ottoman authorities. Palestine Arab Revolt 1936-9. Events in Palestine lead to the formation of treaties of Arab brotherhood, conferences etc. Heightened sense of importance of Arabness. An emerging economic integration of the Arab states in order to deal with the threat from Germany & Italy; greater degree of Arab cooperation. Ba’thism; Arab nationalist movement 1940sNasserism; a very pragmatic Arab nationalism, Egypt 1950sPost war Arab world; formation of the Arab League. Mirrors the emergence of the UN. During the war suggestions were made in London that it might be useful for the Arab world to organise itself to promote some economic, cultural and political unity after the war. An attractive notion to some Arab
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Arab League, Arab World, Arab nationalism, Pan-Arabism