I/Me: According to Mead’s theory:
Me The internalization of the expectations of the generalized other. Learned behaviors, attitudes and expectations Acts as a source of stability I Socialized desire The I is the individual’s identity based on response to the Me. “Okay, society. You want me to act like this. I will act the same way (or maybe not).” Acts as a source of change Id/Ego/Superego: How does the self emerge? Never used the word “socialization”. Freud believed that the bulk of human self was formed in the unconscious. Id represents instinctive desires unsocialized human nature these impulses are largely controlled or repressed Ego the acting individual The mediator between desires and action Tries to reconcile the conflicting demands of the Id and Superego Superego the conscience Represents social ideals (norms, values, etc.) Internalized parental and social authority Although the parent is not present physically, he/she is there in the mind of the individual praising for good deeds and scolding for bad. Identity Control Theory: Identity Theory: Modern descendants of Mead and Cooley Identity Theory Sociology Identity is based on social roles How can one’s identity change according to Identity Theory? Through disruption of the looking-glass self process. The loop can be disrupted at Point A or B. Disruption in this loop causes negative emotions. A smooth loop causes positive emotions. It is easier to cause negative emotions than positive ones in this theory. When input and output are not congruent When output has no meaningful impact When input is vague Social Identity Theory Psychology Identity is based on group membership Identity Theory (Sociology) Focuses on the link between behavior and role
Assumes a relationship between, roles, identity, and action without much thought to the cognitive processes Focuses on behavioral roles and role identities Assumes a stable self that changes through disruptive processes Social Identity Theory (Psychology) Focuses on intergroup relations and behaviors Concerns itself with the cognitive processes of depersonalization and self-categorization as a group member Focuses on broad social categories like race, gender, etc. Assumes several stable identities invoked based on situation Identity Standard: The standards of an identity that one wishes to approximate. Output: Behavior of the individual. Input: Reflected appraisals and other information related to the output. Comparator: Compares the input to the identity standard. Impression management: In-groups: when we belong and feel a sense of loyalty Individual: How does society influence individuals? • Through other individuals (social influence) • Through social interaction • Through social structure (societal influence) • Statuses/roles + groups + organizations + social institutions + culture = society Individualistic: Inner-directed: governed by an internal gyroscope. That is to say, their behavior is strongly controlled by their conscience.
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