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Describes the shape of the orbital the s orbital has

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Describes the shape of the orbital. The s -orbital has l = 0. The p -orbital has l = 1. Takes on values 0, 1, 2, 3 n -1. The magnetic quantum number m l depends on l and describes the orientation of orbitals. It has values of – l -2, -1, 0, 1, 2 + l Spin quantum number s ; 2 electrons in an orbital and they must be paired. That is, ±1/2. What You Should Recall From 1 st -Year Chemistry (for now) Atomic orbitals (2 electrons in each) Atomic structure Bonds (ionic, covalent, polar covalent) Lewis structures Octet rule Pauli Exclusion Principle (tells us that there are 2 electrons per orbital and they must be paired) Aufbau Principle (fill lowest energy orbital 1 st ) Hund’s Rule (“bus seat rule” – occupy all double seats before double occupation begins; electrons are placed singly in all degenerate orbitals before two are paired; electrons are spin aligned) Molecular orbitals from atomic orbitals (LCAO)
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6 Different Orbitals Have Different Energies It is convenient to think of orbitals (shapes, energies) without electrons; we just add them later and stir gently. But what we really mean is that an electron within given orbital will have certain energy that will depend on its average separation from the nucleus (the farther away, the higher the energy). Energy also depends on the number of nodes (nodes are places where the electron density is zero); the more nodes, the higher the energy.
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