[B._Beckhoff,_et_al.]_Handbook_of_Practical_X-Ray_(b-ok.org).pdf

Analysis tasks have the objective of studying the

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analysis tasks have the objective of studying the effects of such pollution by monitoring the chemical composition or structure of samples. More specifically the objectives of monitoring can be the assessment of the effect of pollution on humans, the identification of the cause and effect relationship, the evalua- tion of pollutant interaction, source apportionment, or the need for legislative control on emission of pollutants. It is quite unfortunate that XRF has never been rewarded to be a standard method having legal force for environmental application in Europe. However, in the United States most aerosol monitor- ing analysis is carried our by XRF. A remarkable observation was made in a recent study that investigated the distribution of general applications in the field of X-ray spectrometry [265]. Analytical abstract database in 1998 showed that environmental and geological applications of XRS make up more than 80% of the total which means that at least in the academic sectors most applications are carried out in this field. As can be seen in Fig. 7.114, water, aerosol, and soil analysis are the major applications in this field. For this rea- son, this chapter will concentrate on the analyses techniques and recent results in these popular fields. Interested readers might find overviews and references on other environmental applications in the annular X-ray spectrometry re- views of Analytical Chemistry [266–268] and Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry [269, 270]. From the above definition (of the complex environment) we have to con- clude that environmental applications involve large sample numbers and the samples themselves have a large variability in concentration. For such tasks X-ray fluorescence and in some applications (like aerosol analysis) PIXE was an ideal method due to the low cost/sample/element on the one hand and because of the high throughput capability on the other. Characteristic X-ray emission spectroscopies from an analytical point of view are atomic number sensitive methods. Most routine analyses in the last decades have been carried out for geological explorations [272]. Environmen- tal applications merit basically from the non-destructiveness and the wide dynamic range of the technique. However, conventional XRF is often criti- cized of having relatively high detection limits. Since the beginning of the 1990s many other techniques have emerged, some of them with much lower minimum detection limits (MDL) even for
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Methodological Developments and Applications 603 Blologlcal 19% Others 14% Air 17% Water 19% Waste 8% Soll 23% Fig. 7.114. Relative contributions of published manuscripts in the different ap- plication fields of X-ray spectrometry in 1998. Reproduced from Injuk and Van Grieken [265] by permission of John Wiley & Sons bulk analysis. Figure 7.115 displays the detection limits of XRF techniques at this time.
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