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Ads can affect consumers’ self-esteemoSocial comparison theoryoSelf-discrepancy theorySocial comparison theory: Evaluating the self by comparing it with other people’s selves and those of media images•Self-evaluation•Self-enhancementoUpward vs. downward comparisonSelf-discrepancy theory: Actual self. The “looking glass self” and the “extended self”. More realistic appraisal of the qualities we have:•Products can:•Help us reach ideal self•Be consistent with actual self•Ideal self•Conception of how we would like to be•Ought selfReal and Ideal Selves•We are constantly faced with images of the “ideal” person in media•Each of us has more than one self concept -one for attractiveness, work ethic, friend etc.•Impression management: Where we work hard to “manage” what others think of usostrategically engaging in products and behaviours to impressSymbolic Interactionism: Relationships with others play a large part in forming the self•We exist in a symbolic world creating shared meanings•“Who am I in this situation?”
•“Who do other people think I am?”•We pattern our behaviour on the perceived expectation of others—a self-fulfilling prophecyLooking-glass Self:The process of imagining the reactions of others toward us•a process of reflexive evaluation occurs when an individual attempt to define the self•take readings of our own identity by “bouncing” signals off othersSelf-fulfilling prophecy:When we tend to pattern our behaviour on the perceived expectations of others.•fashion apps allow consumers to get feedback on the image of the self they conveySelf-Consciousness•Can be painfully aware of one-self•Public self-consciousness•Self-monitoringoHigh vs. low self-monitorsSymbolic self-completion theory:People who have an incomplete self-definition complete identity by acquiring and displaying associated symbols.Compensatory consumption: When the consumer is threatened or lacking on a particular dimension, they may consume in ways that allow them to cope with this threat.Self-image congruence models: We choose products when attributes match the self•assume a process of cognitive matching between product attributes and the consumer’s self-imageExtended self: External objects considered a part of usGender roles vary by culture but are changing•Levels of extended self:oIndividual: personal possessions (cars, clothing)oFamily: residence and furnishingsoCommunity: neighbourhood or town where you liveoGroup: social or other groupsThe Digital Self: Strategically “modify” their online personalities.•many of create additional identities in the form of avatars in virtual worlds•moving from “you are what you wear” to “you are what you post.”Wearable Computing: Digital interactions will become attached to our bodies and perhaps even insertedinto our bodies as companies offer ways to implant computer chips into our wrists.