The breadth of this competitor search will vary from

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sion will be made. The breadth of this competitor search will vary from person to person. Some will be satis fi ed with the fi rst product found that matches the need criteria and is within budget and accessibility. Others will conduct a thorough search where a full range of possibilities will be explored, spanning an array of budgets and retailers. Some more savvy consumers will explore an even wider range of options, turning to online retailers such as Amazon and Ebay to try and fi nd the best available product (often second-hand) for the best available price. The use of the Internet has increasingly made this competitor search easier and more accessible to the masses as consumers no longer have to physically visit retailers in stores to see the full product range available. This adaptation to retailer access has had a signi fi cant effect on the purchasing process in general as the behaviour of consumers is rapidly adapting to accommodate developments in technology such as advanced application of the internet. Once the purchasing decision has been reached, the fi nal stage of this process concludes the product purchase. Output includes the consumer following on from their decision and both the act of phys- ically purchasing the product decided on, and also the evaluation of that product once the consumer has received and utilised the product suf fi ciently. The purchasing process has also been considered within a wider context, which has developed the purchasing process to move to that of a four-stage process. The fi rst stage assesses the need for the product and could be compared to the input stage of the previous model discussed. Following this, the gathering of information must occur, which again can be compared to that of the fi rst initial sub-category of Fig. 1 Schiffman et al. ( 2008 ) purchasing process The Role of the Retailer 5
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stage two of the process. The third stage referred to would be utilisation of per- ceptions of social context. This is where several authors believe the consideration for ethics and sustainability would come, an increasing consideration for the pur- chasing of many consumer goods. The fi nal stage of the process which again is comparable to that of Schiffman et al. ( 2008 ) would be the act of developing behavioural intentions (Fig. 2 ). This four-stage process as developed by Newholm and Shaw ( 2007 ) also believes that the large majority of decision making in purchasing occurs prior to the act of behavioural intentions, meaning that a consumer has made a decision before the physical action of purchasing. 2.1 In fl uencing Purchasing Behaviour When considering the purchasing process as a three or four-stage model, there is an intervening period where retailers have the power to in fl uence decisions made by consumers. This would be applicable in both an online and in-store situation where advertising, special offers and price promotions could in fl uence the predetermined decisions made by consumers. This window of opportunity allows for the con- sumer
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  • Fall '19
  • Business Ethics, Corporate social responsibility, Alana M. James, Bruce Montgomery

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