Lecture 8 - Endocrine Pathologies Bio416K Spring 2010(2) LECTURE 9......

Three cardinal signs of diabetes are polyuria

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Three cardinal signs of diabetes are polyuria, polydipsia and polyphagia. Patients with uncontrolled diabetes typically develop long term vascular and neural complications that can result in stroke, heart attack, kidney failure, blindness and impotence. Disease is treated by insulin replacement therapy or medications that stimulate insulin secretion or insulin action.
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Insulin Primary actions: Stimulates glucose transport in cells (muscle, liver, adipose) 1. Stimulates glucose oxidation, 2. promotes glycogen formation, 3. promotes adipose formation Negative effects on gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis Stimulates protein synthesis in muscle tissue Glucagon Primary actions: Breakdown of glycogen to glucose (glycogenolysis) Synthesis of glucose from noncarbohydrate molecules (gluconeogenesis) Release of glucose to the blood by liver cells Diabetes mellitus Type 1 (IDDM, juvenile onset) Type 2 (NIDDM, adult onset) Type 1.5 (LADA, adult onset)
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Klinefelter Syndrome - Hypogonadism Hyposecretion of testosterone with elevated LH and FSH due to failure of Leydig cell development. Syndrome characterized by delayed puberty, infertility, decreased libido, sexual dysfunction, small penis and testes, lack of facial hair, breast growth, fibrosis of seminiferous tubules. Due to abnormal number of chromosomes (n=47 or 48); the extra chromosome is an X chromosome (i.e., an XXY or an XXXY combination). The genetic variation is irreversible, but its symptoms can be treated with testosterone replacement.
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Hypogonadism in Male Gonad - Testes
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Testosterone/Estrogen Primary actions: Differentiation and development of reproductive structures Maintenance and growth of reproductive structures Gametogenesis Secondary sex characteristics (features induced in nonreproductive organs) Libido Increases bone density and skeletal muscle mass Increases metabolic rate of cells Additional actions of Estrogen/Progesterone: Promote breast development Control cyclic changes in uterine mucosa
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Turner’s Syndrome - Hypogonadism Hyposecretion of estrogen due to failure of ovary development with elevated LH and FSH. Syndrome characterized by delayed puberty, infertility, lack of menses, poor breast development, decreased libido, short stature, increased risk of cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. Due to abnormal number of chromosomes (n=45); the chromosome lacking is an X chromosome (i.e., an X0 combination). The genetic variation is irreversible, but its symptoms can be treated with estrogen replacement, growth hormone, and egg donors.
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Hypogonadism in Female Gonads - Ovaries
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Hormones of the Hypothalamic-Anterior Pituitary Endocrine Pathway
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