Culture is integrated cultures are integrated

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CULTURE IS INTEGRATED Cultures are integrated, patterned systems If one part changes, other parts change Core values : key, basic, or central values that integrate a culture Example: work ethic and individualism in American culture
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Cultures are integrated systems. When one behavior pattern changes, others also change. During the 1950s, most American women expected to have careers as wives, mothers, and domestic managers. As more and more women have entered the workforce, attitudes toward work and family have changed. In the earlier photo, a 1950s mom and kids do the dishes. In the recent photo, a doctor and two nurses examine a patient’s record. What do you imagine these three women do when they get home?
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CULTURE IS INSTRUMENTAL, ADAPTIVE, AND MALADAPTIVE Humans have cultural as well as biological ways of adapting to and coping with environmental stresses Culture also fulfills psychological and emotional needs Cultural traits can be maladaptive Policies that encourage overpopulation, poor food-distribution systems, overconsumption, and environmental degradation
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CULTURE’S EVOLUTIONARY BASIS Similarities between humans and apes are evident in anatomy, brain structure, genetics, and biochemistry Hominid : member of hominid family; any fossil or living human, chimp, or gorilla Hominins : hominids excluding the African apes; all the human species that have ever existed
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CULTURE’S EVOLUTIONARY BASIS Many human traits reflect the fact that our primate ancestors lived in trees Grasping ability and manual dexterity Depth and color vision Learning ability based on a large brain Substantial parental investment in offspring Tendencies toward sociality and cooperation
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WHAT WE SHARE WITH OTHER PRIMATES There is a substantial gap between primate society and fully developed human culture Still, primates share similarities with humans: Ability to learn and change behavior Tool use Aiming and throwing objects; building nests Habitual hunters
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These two photos show different forms of tool use by chimps. Liberian chimps, like the one on the left, use hammer stones to crack palm nuts. On the right, chimps use prepared twigs to “fish” for termites from an ant hill.
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HOW WE DIFFER FROM OTHER PRIMATES Cooperation and sharing are much more developed among humans Other differences: Human females lack a visible estrus cycle, and ovulation is concealed Humans mate throughout the year
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  • Fall '19
  • Cultural Change

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