Convertible bonds are securities that are convertible

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Convertible bonds are securities that are convertible into shares of common stock, at a fixed price, at the option of the bondholder. Bonds issued with warrants are similar to convertibles. Warrants are options which permit the holder to buy stock for a stated price, thereby providing a capital gain if the stock price rises. Income bonds pay interest only if the interest is earned. These securities cannot bankrupt a company, but from an investor's standpoint they are riskier than "regular" bonds. The interest rate of an indexed, or purchasing power, bond is based on an inflation index such as the consumer price index (CPI), so the interest paid rises automatically when the inflation rate rises, thus protecting the bondholders against inflation. f. Bond prices and interest rates are inversely related; that is, they tend to move in the opposite direction from one another. A fixed-rate bond will sell at par when its coupon interest rate is equal to the going rate of interest, r d . When the going rate of interest is above the coupon rate, a fixed-rate bond will sell at a "discount" below its par value. If current interest rates are below the coupon rate, a fixed-rate bond will sell at a "premium" above its par value. 18
g. The current yield on a bond is the annual coupon payment divided by the current market price. YTM, or yield to maturity, is the rate of interest earned on a bond if it is held to maturity. Yield to call (YTC) is the rate of interest earned on a bond if it is called. If current interest rates are well below an outstanding callable bond's coupon rate, the YTC may be a more relevant estimate of expected return than the YTM, since the bond is likely to be called. h. Corporations can influence the default risk of their bonds by changing the type of bonds they issue. Under a mortgage bond, the corporation pledges certain assets as security for the bond. All such bonds are written subject to an indenture, which is a legal document that spells out in detail the rights of both the bondholders and the corporation. A debenture is an unsecured bond, and as such, it provides no lien against specific property as security for the obligation. Debenture holders are, therefore, general creditors whose claims are protected by property not otherwise pledged. Subordinated debentures have claims on assets, in the event of bankruptcy, only after senior debt as named in the subordinated debt's indenture has been paid off. Subordinated debentures may be subordinated to designated notes payable or to all other debt. i. A development bond is a tax-exempt bond sold by state and local governments whose proceeds are made available to corporations for specific uses deemed (by Congress) to be in the public interest. Municipalities can insure their bonds, in which an insurance company guarantees to pay the coupon and principal payments should the issuer default. This reduces the risk to investors who are willing to accept a lower coupon rate for an insured bond issue

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