IEC_Elctrical Energy Storage.pdf

Examples of ees relevant applications in the smart

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Examples of EES-relevant applications in the Smart Grid are given below. 1) Penetration of renewable energy requires more frequency control capability in the power system. EES can be used to enhance the capability through the control of charging and discharging from network operators, so that the imbalance between power consumption and generation is lessened. 2) In some cases, EES can reduce investment in power system infrastructure such as transformers, transmission lines and distribution lines through load levelling in certain areas at times of peak demand. EES for this purpose may also be used to enhance frequency control capability. 3) A further option is so-called demand-side management, involving smart grids and residential users. With intelligent consumption management and economic incentives consumers can be encouraged to shift their energy buying towards periods when surplus power is available. Users may accomplish this shift by changing when they need electricity, by buying and storing electricity for later use when they do not need it, or both. Electrochemical storage types used in smart grids are basically lead acid and NaS batteries, and in some cases also Li-ion batteries. For this application redox flow batteries also have Figure 3-12 – The Smart Grid (Fraunhofer ISE)
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53 Figure 3-13 – Scalable architecture for EES applications in a Smart Microgrid (Sanyo, IEC MSB/EES Workshop, 2011) potential because of their independent ratio of power and energy, leading to cost-efficient storage solutions. 3.2.3 Smart Microgrid A smart factory, smart building, smart hospital, smart store or another intermediate-level grid with EES may be treated as a “Smart Microgrid” 8 . For flexibility in resisting outages caused by disasters it is very important to deploy Smart Microgrids, that is, distributed smart power sources, as an element in constructing smart grids. EES is an essential component of a Smart Microgrid, which should be scalable, autonomous and ready to cooperate with other grids. The architecture for the Smart Microgrid should have a single controller and should be scalable with respect to EES, i.e. it should adjust smoothly to the expansion and shrinkage of EES (battery) capacities according to the application in for example a factory, a building, a hospital or a store. The microgrid and EES should in general be connected to the network; even if a particular Smart Microgrid is not connected to a grid, for example in the case of an isolated island, it should still have similar possibilities of intelligent adjustment, because an isolated Smart Microgrid can also expand or shrink. Figure 3-13 shows a schematic of a scalable architecture. In Annex B two examples are given, a factory and a store, which have fairly different sizes of batteries, but with controllers in common.
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