SEE
IEC_Elctrical Energy Storage.pdf

Examples of ees relevant applications in the smart

Info icon This preview shows pages 52–54. Sign up to view the full content.

Examples of EES-relevant applications in the Smart Grid are given below. 1) Penetration of renewable energy requires more frequency control capability in the power system. EES can be used to enhance the capability through the control of charging and discharging from network operators, so that the imbalance between power consumption and generation is lessened. 2) In some cases, EES can reduce investment in power system infrastructure such as transformers, transmission lines and distribution lines through load levelling in certain areas at times of peak demand. EES for this purpose may also be used to enhance frequency control capability. 3) A further option is so-called demand-side management, involving smart grids and residential users. With intelligent consumption management and economic incentives consumers can be encouraged to shift their energy buying towards periods when surplus power is available. Users may accomplish this shift by changing when they need electricity, by buying and storing electricity for later use when they do not need it, or both. Electrochemical storage types used in smart grids are basically lead acid and NaS batteries, and in some cases also Li-ion batteries. For this application redox flow batteries also have Figure 3-12 – The Smart Grid (Fraunhofer ISE)
Image of page 52

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

53 Figure 3-13 – Scalable architecture for EES applications in a Smart Microgrid (Sanyo, IEC MSB/EES Workshop, 2011) potential because of their independent ratio of power and energy, leading to cost-efficient storage solutions. 3.2.3 Smart Microgrid A smart factory, smart building, smart hospital, smart store or another intermediate-level grid with EES may be treated as a “Smart Microgrid” 8 . For flexibility in resisting outages caused by disasters it is very important to deploy Smart Microgrids, that is, distributed smart power sources, as an element in constructing smart grids. EES is an essential component of a Smart Microgrid, which should be scalable, autonomous and ready to cooperate with other grids. The architecture for the Smart Microgrid should have a single controller and should be scalable with respect to EES, i.e. it should adjust smoothly to the expansion and shrinkage of EES (battery) capacities according to the application in for example a factory, a building, a hospital or a store. The microgrid and EES should in general be connected to the network; even if a particular Smart Microgrid is not connected to a grid, for example in the case of an isolated island, it should still have similar possibilities of intelligent adjustment, because an isolated Smart Microgrid can also expand or shrink. Figure 3-13 shows a schematic of a scalable architecture. In Annex B two examples are given, a factory and a store, which have fairly different sizes of batteries, but with controllers in common.
Image of page 53
Image of page 54
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern