Lecture2-OverviewOfPerception.pptx

22 parietaldorsal pathway where how temporalventral

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Parietal/Dorsal pathway (“where”, “how”) Temporal/Ventral pathway (“what”) MT/ V5 Color/ selective attention/ simple objects Complex form/ objects/faces/bodies Simple, global motion Complex motion Integration of move- ment and action Figure-ground distinction 23 Clear Evidence for Bottom-Up Processing in Visual Neurophysiology Lines, edges, Luminance changes
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There is unfortunately an insurmountable problem with trying to explain pattern/object perception using a purely bottom-up processing explanation… 24
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The Inverse Projection Problem An infinite number of higher-dimensional stimuli in the environment (called distal stimuli) can give rise to a given lower-dimensional perceptual representation (called a proxima l stimulus) 25
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Point light source Diffuse light source 26 The Inverse Projection Problem
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Bottom-up sensory information about objects is often fragmentary and imprecise : objects are often partially hidden images continually enter and leave our visual fields as we shift our fixation; acoustic patterns change as we move our two ears objects move with respect to each other, and we move with respect to objects Other Challenges to Bottom-Up Perception 27
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In order to address the inverse projection problem, we need to have some form of top-down processing in addition to bottom-up processing. Top-down processing utilizes a person’s higher-level concepts, heuristics, and other mental processes influence object recognition. 28
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Some examples of visual illusions that depends on top-down processing: 29
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30 Demonstration of Optic Flow in a Moving Visual Scene: Our environment has certain structural regularities that can help us make assumptions about objects in top-down processing
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Our environment has certain structural regularities that can help us make assumptions about objects in top-down processing Assumption of an overhead light source 31
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Linear Perspective Closeness to Horizon 32 Our environment has certain structural regularities that can help us make assumptions about objects in top-down processing
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Texture Gradients 33 Linear perspective and texture
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