The Scientific Method The six steps of the scientific method o Forming a

The scientific method the six steps of the scientific

This preview shows page 2 - 4 out of 10 pages.

The Scientific Method The six steps of the scientific method o Forming a hypothesis o Conduct a literature review o Design a study o Conduct the study o Analyze the data o Report the results Theories and Hypotheses Theory – a model of interconnected ideas or concepts that explains what is observed, makes predications about future events, and is based on empirical evidence Hypothesis – a specific, testable prediction, narrower than the theory it is based on What makes a Good Theory? Falsifiable – a good theory should be able to be proven wrong. Many testable hypotheses – a wide range of things can be studied. Parsimonious tend to be simple.
Image of page 2
Replication of Studies Replication is simply repeating the study to see if the same results happen again. Replications are important because it rules out the possibility that the original setting may have contributed to the findings. Basically, a do-over lets us know if what we have found is real or not. Serendipity Many significant scientific findings are the result of serendipity o Serendipity means unexpectedly finding things that are valuable or agreeable. Components of Research Variable – Something in the world the researchers can manipulate or measure (or both) Independent Variable – The variable that gets manipulated. Dependent Variable – The variable that gets measured. “depends” on the independent variable Operational definition – A definition that qualifies and quantifies a variable so it can be understood completely. Three Main Types of Studies Descriptive – Rely on observation Correlational – Describes and predicts natural phenomena Experimental Tests causal relationships by manipulation and measurement of variables. Problems with Descriptive Research Reactivity – When the knowledge that one is being observed alters the behavior being observed. Hawthorne Effect - the alteration of behavior by the subjects of a study due to their awareness of being observed. Observer Bias – Systematic errors in observation that occur because of an observer’s expectations. Experimenter Expectancy Effect – Actual change in the behavior of the people or nonhuman animals being observed that is due to the expectations of the observer. Self-report Methods – Methods of data collection in which people are asked to provide information about themselves, such as in questionnaires or surveys. Types of Correlations Positive Correlation – A relationship between two variables in which both variables either increase or decrease together. Negative Correlation – A relationship between two variables in which one variable increases when the other decreases No Correlation – A relationship between two variables in which one variable is not predictably related to the other.
Image of page 3
Image of page 4

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 10 pages?

  • Spring '12
  • Psychology, research participants, monoamine neurotransmitter

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern

Stuck? We have tutors online 24/7 who can help you get unstuck.
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes