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Dawes allotment act 1887 in 1887 congress passed the

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Dawes Allotment Act 1887 - In 1887, Congress passed the Dawes Allotment Act, dividing up reservations and allottingparcels of land to individual Indians as private property. Provisions:a.Indian heads of household received an allotment 160 acres from reservation lands.b.Single persons over 18 and orphans under 18 received 80 acres.c.Indians who took allotments earned U.S. citizenship.d.The government reserved the right to sell “surplus” reservation lands to white settlers.D. Indian Resistance and Survival1.Survival - Some tribes, including the Crow, Arikara, Pawnee, and Shoshoni, fought alongside the U.S. Army against theirold enemies, the Sioux. The Crow and Shoshoni got to stay in their homelands and avoided the fate of other tribesshipped to reservations far away.2.Nez Perce war of 1877 - In 1863, the government dictated a treaty reducing Nez Perce land. Most of the chiefs refused tosign the treaty and did not move to the reservation. In 1877, the army issued an ultimatum—come in to the reservation orbe hunted down. Some 800 Nez Perce people fled across the mountains heading for the safety of Canada. Only fifty milesfrom the border, after a 1,300-mile journey, the army caught up with them and attacked. After a five-day siege, the NezPerce leader, Chief Joseph, surrendered.3.Southwest Apaches - In the Southwest, the Apaches resorted to armed resistance. By 1882, the army had succeeded inpersuading most of the Apaches to settle on the San Carlos Reservation in Arizona Territory.4.Geronimo - A respected shaman of the Chiricahua Apache, Geronimo refused to stay at San Carlos and repeatedly ledraiding parties in the early 1880s. Finally, caught between Mexican regulars and the U.S. Army, Geronimo agreed tomarch north with the soldiers and negotiate a settlement. The government rounded up nearly 500 Apaches, including thescouts who had helped track Geronimo, and sent them as prisoners to Florida.5.Ghost Dance - On the plains, many tribes turned to a nonviolent form of resistance—a new religion called the GhostDance. The Paiute shaman Wovoka combined elements of Christianity and traditional Indian religion to found the GhostDance religion in 1889. Wovoka claimed that he had received a vision in which the Great Spirit spoke through him to allIndians, prophesying that if they would unite in the Ghost Dance ritual, whites would be destroyed in an apocalypse. Thisreligion, born of despair and with a message of hope, spread like wildfire over the plains. The Ghost Dance wasnonviolent, but it frightened whites, especially when the Sioux taught that wearing a white ghost shirt made Indiansimmune to soldiers’ bullets.

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Term
Fall
Professor
Mary Kuhman
Tags
Government, Reconstruction era of the United States, President Johnson

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